SciCombinator

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Concept: Button Mangosteen

152

This study investigated the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of propolis collected from two stingless bee species Tetragonula laeviceps and Tetrigona melanoleuca (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Six xanthones, one triterpene and one lignane were isolated from Tetragonula laeviceps propolis. Triterpenes were the main constituents in T. melanoleuca propolis. The ethanol extract and isolated compounds from T. laeviceps propolis showed a higher antibacterial activity than those of T. melanoleuca propolis as the constituent α-mangostin exhibited the strongest activity. Xanthones were found in propolis for the first time; Garcinia mangostana (Mangosteen) was the most probable plant source. In addition, this is the first report on the chemical composition and bioactivity of propolis from T. melanoleuca.

Concepts: Honey bee, Bee, Apidae, Pollinators, Apocrita, Garcinia, Purple Mangosteen, Button Mangosteen

27

Applications for antimicrobials derived from the mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) plant are presently restricted by high production costs. Extraction from cultivation or processing waste streams using a solvent free approach could lessen to permit commercial applications in food processing and preservation.

Concepts: Fruit, Food preservation, Garcinia, Purple Mangosteen, Button Mangosteen

26

Two new xanthones, designated garcimangosxanthone F (1) and garcimangosxanthone G (2), were isolated from the EtOAc-soluble fraction of ethanolic extract from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana. Their structures were established as 1,6,7-trihydroxy-5-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-8-(3-hydroxy-3-methylbutyl)-6',6'-dimethylpyrano[2',3':3,2]xanthone and 1,6,7-trihydroxy-5-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-8-(3-hydroxy-3-methylbutyl)-6',6'-dimethyl-4',5'-dihydropyrano[2',3':3,2]xanthone, respectively, on the basis of their 1D, 2D NMR and MS data interpretation.

Concepts: Fruit, Garcinia, Purple Mangosteen, Button Mangosteen, Xanthone

26

Two new xanthones: mangostanaxanthones I (3) and II (5) were isolated from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana, along with four known xanthones: 9-hydroxycalabaxanthone (1), parvifolixanthone C (2), α-mangostin (4), and rubraxanthone (6). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of IR, UV, 1D, 2D NMR, and MS spectroscopic data, in addition to comparison with literature data. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their antioxidant, antimicrobial, and quorum-sensing inhibitory activities. Compounds 3 and 5 displayed promising antioxidant activity with IC50 12.07 and 14.12μM, respectively using DPPH assay. Compounds 4-6 had weak to moderate activity against E. coli and S. aureus, while demonstrated promising action against B. cereus with MICs 0.25, 1.0, and 1.0mg/mL, respectively. The tested compounds were inactive against C. albicans. However, they showed selective antifungal potential towards A. fumigatus. Compounds 3 and 4 possessed quorum-sensing inhibitory activity against Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472.

Concepts: Bacteria, Fruit, Garcinia, Purple Mangosteen, Button Mangosteen

3

The purple mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana), known as the “queen of fruit,” is widely consumed and unique not only because of its outstanding appearance and flavor but also its remarkable and diverse pharmacological effects. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of acute mangosteen supplementation on physical fatigue during exercise.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Fruit, Garcinia, Purple Mangosteen, Button Mangosteen

1

Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) is a tropical tree native to Southeast Asia that produces a fruit whose pericarp contains a family of tricyclic isoprenylated polyphenols referred to as xanthones. Numerous in vitro studies have shown that these xanthones possess anti-oxidant, anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic activities. Aggressive marketing of such health promoting benefits has resulted in mangosteen’s classification as a “superfruit”. This has led to sales of mangosteen containing beverages in USA alone exceeding $200 million in 2008 despite very limited animal and human studies. This review will (a) critically address recent reports of in vivo studies on the bioavailability and metabolism of mangosteen xanthones, (b) update the in vitro and in vivo data on anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities of mangosteen xanthones, and © suggest needed areas of inquiry regarding the absorption, metabolism and efficacy of mangosteen xanthones.

Concepts: Critical thinking, Nutrition, In vivo, In vitro, Fruit, Garcinia, Purple Mangosteen, Button Mangosteen

0

Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) has exceptional potential for commercial and pharmaceutical applications due to its delicious fruit and medicinal properties. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanism of mangosteen seed development is poorly understood. In this study, we performed transcriptomic analysis of four seed developmental stages; eight, ten, twelve and fourteen weeks after anthesis. Illumina HiSeq™ 4000 sequencer was used to generate raw data of approximately 68 Gb in size. From 451,495,326 raw reads, 406,143,756 clean reads were obtained. The raw data were uploaded to SRA database and the BioProject ID is PRJNA395504. These data provide the basis for further exploration and understanding of the molecular mechanism in mangosteen seed development.

Concepts: Knowledge, Fruit, Apple, Raw image format, Garcinia, Purple Mangosteen, Button Mangosteen

0

Garcinia mangostana L. (the queen of fruits, mangosteen, family Guttiferae) is a wealthy source of xanthones. The CHCl3 soluble fraction of the air-dried pericarps of G. mangostana provided a new xanthone: mangostanaxanthone VII (5), along with four known xanthones: mangostanaxanthones I (1) and II (2), gartanin (3) and γ-mangostin (4). The structural verification of these metabolites was achieved by different spectral techniques, including UV, IR, 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS. The new metabolite was assessed for cytotoxic potential, using sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay towards the A549 and MCF-7 cancer cell lines. Moreover, its antimicrobial effects were evaluated against various bacterial and fungal strains, using agar disc diffusion assay. Mangostanaxanthone VII showed moderate cytotoxic activity against the A549 and MCF7 cell lines with IC50s 26.1 and 34.8 μM, respectively, compared with doxorubicin (0.74 and 0.41 μM, respectively).

Concepts: Cell, Breast cancer, Cell culture, Fruit, Garcinia, Purple Mangosteen, Button Mangosteen, Xanthone

0

A novel xanthone dimer derivative, garmoxanthone (1), together with 10 known compounds (2-11), were isolated from bark of Garcinia mangostana. Their structures were established through spectroscopic methods. Garmoxanthone exhibited strong inhibitory activities against MRSA ATCC 43300 and MRSA CGMCC 1.12409 (with MIC values of both 3.9 μg/mL) and moderate activities against tested strains of Vibrio (with MIC values ranging from 15.6 to 31.2 μg/mL). Garmoxanthone is a unique xanthone dimer with linkage of a fused 5/6 ring system and its absolute configuration was elucidated on the basis of experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism. Garmoxanthone exhibited strong antibacterial activity which partially validated the ethnobotanical use of G. mangostana in the treatment of infections.

Concepts: Spectroscopy, Bacteria, Activity, Circular dichroism, Garcinia, Purple Mangosteen, Button Mangosteen, Xanthone

0

Garcinia mangostana L. (Clusiaceae) is a tropical tree native to Southeast Asia known as mangosteen which fruits possess a distinctive and pleasant taste that has granted them the epithet of “queen of the fruits”. The seeds and pericarps of the fruit have a long history of use in the traditional medicinal practices of the region, and beverages containing mangosteen pulp and pericarps are sold worldwide as nutritional supplements. The main phytochemicals present in the species are isoprenylated xanthones, a class of secondary metabolites with multiple reports of biological effects, such as antioxidant, pro-apoptotic, anti-proliferative, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, hypoglycemic and anti-obesity. The diversity of actions displayed by mangosteen xanthones shows that these compounds target multiple signaling pathways involved in different pathologies, and place them as valuable sources for developing new drugs to treat chronic and degenerative diseases. This review article presents a comprehensive update of the toxicological findings on animal models, and the preclinical anticancer, analgesic, neuroprotective, antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effects of G. mangostana L. extracts and its main isolates. Pharmacokinetics, drug delivery systems and reports on dose-finding human trials are also examined.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Metabolism, Biology, Toxicology, Fruit, Garcinia, Purple Mangosteen, Button Mangosteen