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Concept: Bulk density


We present Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models of the coupled dynamics of water flow, heat transfer and irradiance in and around corals to predict temperatures experienced by corals. These models were validated against controlled laboratory experiments, under constant and transient irradiance, for hemispherical and branching corals. Our CFD models agree very well with experimental studies. A linear relationship between irradiance and coral surface warming was evident in both the simulation and experimental result agreeing with heat transfer theory. However, CFD models for the steady state simulation produced a better fit to the linear relationship than the experimental data, likely due to experimental error in the empirical measurements. The consistency of our modelling results with experimental observations demonstrates the applicability of CFD simulations, such as the models developed here, to coral bleaching studies. A study of the influence of coral skeletal porosity and skeletal bulk density on surface warming was also undertaken, demonstrating boundary layer behaviour, and interstitial flow magnitude and temperature profiles in coral cross sections. Our models compliment recent studies showing systematic changes in these parameters in some coral colonies and have utility in the prediction of coral bleaching.

Concepts: Scientific method, Coral, Temperature, Thermodynamics, Heat, Fluid mechanics, Computational fluid dynamics, Bulk density


Ultralow trap densities, exceptional optical and electronic properties have been reported for lead halide perovskites single crystals; however, ambiguities in basic properties, such as the band gap, and the electronic defect densities in the bulk and at the surface prevail. Here, we synthesize single crystals of methylammonium lead bromide (CH3NH3PbBr3), characterise the optical absorption and photoluminescence and show that the optical properties of single crystals are almost identical to those of polycrystalline thin films. We observe significantly longer lifetimes and show that carrier diffusion plays a substantial role in the photoluminescence decay. Contrary to many reports, we determine that the trap density in CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite single crystals is 10(15) cm(-3), only one order of magnitude lower than in the thin films. Our enhanced understanding of optical properties and recombination processes elucidates ambiguities in earlier reports, and highlights the discrepancies in the estimation of trap densities from electronic and optical methods.Metal halide perovskites for optoelectronic devices have been extensively studied in two forms: single-crystals or polycrystalline thin films. Using spectroscopic approaches, Wenger et al. show that polycrystalline thin films possess similar optoelectronic properties to single crystals.

Concepts: Photon, Density, Semiconductor, Solar cell, Photodiode, Electronic band structure, Bulk density, Photonics


Large impacts provide a mechanism for resurfacing planets through mixing near-surface rocks with deeper material. Central peaks are formed from the dynamic uplift of rocks during crater formation. As crater size increases, central peaks transition to peak rings. Without samples, debate surrounds the mechanics of peak-ring formation and their depth of origin. Chicxulub is the only known impact structure on Earth with an unequivocal peak ring, but it is buried and only accessible through drilling. Expedition 364 sampled the Chicxulub peak ring, which we found was formed from uplifted, fractured, shocked, felsic basement rocks. The peak-ring rocks are cross-cut by dikes and shear zones and have an unusually low density and seismic velocity. Large impacts therefore generate vertical fluxes and increase porosity in planetary crust.

Concepts: Plate tectonics, Petroleum, Solar System, Planet, Bulk density, Venus, Granite, Impact crater


The design of an efficient field-scale remediation based on the use of nanoscale zero valent iron (NZVI) requires an accurate assessment of the mobility of such particles in saturated porous media, both during injection in the subsurface (short-term mobility) and later (long-term mobility). In this study, the mobility of highly concentrated dispersions of bimetallic Fe/Cu nanoparticles (d(50) = 70 ± 5 nm) in sand-packed columns (0.5 m length and 0.025 m inner diameter) was studied. In particular, the influence of flow rate (V = 5 × 10(-4), 1 × 10(-3), 2 × 10(-3) m/s) and injected particle concentrations (2, 5, 8, 12 g/l) was addressed. Breakthrough curves and water pressure drop along the column, averaged effective porosity and final distribution of retained particles along the column were measured. Experimental results evidenced a good mobility of the Fe/Cu particles, with significant breakthrough in all explored experimental conditions of flow rate and C(0), without requiring the addition of any stabilizing agent. Clogging phenomenon of the column and also the pore pressure variation during injection period are strongly affected by injected concentration. Clogging due to deposition of particles following a ripening dynamics was observed in particular for C(0) = 8 and 12 g/l. The experimental data were modeled using the E-MNM1D software. The study has implications for field injection of bimetallic nanoparticles, suggesting that particular care is to be devoted when selecting injection concentration, to avoid porous medium clogging and control the radius of influence.

Concepts: Concentration, Hydrogeology, Porosity, Bulk density, Porous medium, Porous media, Poromechanics, Effective porosity


The efficiency of a foam displacement process in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) depends largely on the stability of foam films in the presence of oil. Experimental studies have demonstrated the detrimental impact of oil on foam stability. This paper reviews the mechanisms and theories (disjoining pressure, coalescence and drainage, entering and spreading of oil, oil emulsification, pinch-off, etc.) suggested in the literature to explain the impact of oil on foam stability in the bulk and porous media. Moreover, we describe the existing approaches to foam modeling in porous media and the ways these models describe the oil effect on foam propagation in porous media. Further, we present various ideas on an improvement of foam stability and longevity in the presence of oil. The outstanding questions regarding foam-oil interactions and modeling of these interactions are pointed out.

Concepts: Petroleum, Interaction, Model, Porosity, Theory, Bulk density, Porous medium, Enhanced oil recovery


Porous carbon materials with large pore volume are crucial in loading insulated sulfur with the purpose of achieving high performance for lithium-sulfur batteries. In our study, peapod-like mesoporous carbon with interconnected pore channels and large pore volume (4.69 cm3 g-1) was synthesized and used as the matrix to fabricate carbon/sulfur (C/S) composite which served as attractive cathodes for lithium-sulfur batteries. Systematic investigation of the C/S composite reveals that the carbon matrix can hold a high but suitable sulfur loading of 84 wt%, which is beneficial for improving the bulk density in practical application. Such controllable sulfur-filling also effectively allows the volume expansion of active sulfur during Li+ insertion. Moreover, the thin carbon walls (3-4 nm) of carbon matrix not only are able to shorten the pathway of Li+ transfer and conduct electron to overcome the poor kinetics of sulfur cathode, but also are flexible to warrant structure stability. Importantly, the peapod-like carbon shell is beneficial to increase the electrical contact for improving electronic conductivity of active sulfur. Meanwhile, polymer modification with polypyrrole coating layer further restrains polysulfides dissolution and improves the cycle stability of carbon/sulfur composites.

Concepts: Cathode, Density, Sulfur, Composite material, Battery, Porosity, Bulk density, Polysulfide


Focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) was used as a process analytical technology tool to perform inline real-time particle size analysis of a proprietary granulation manufactured using a continuous twin-screw granulation-drying-milling process. A significant relationship between D20, D50, and D80 length-weighted chord length and sieve particle size was observed with a p value of <0.0001 and R (2) of 0.886. A central composite response surface statistical design was used to evaluate the effect of granulator screw speed and Comil® impeller speed on the length-weighted chord length distribution (CLD) and particle size distribution (PSD) determined by FBRM and nested sieve analysis, respectively. The effect of granulator speed and mill speed on bulk density, tapped density, Compressibility Index, and Flowability Index were also investigated. An inline FBRM probe placed below the Comil-generated chord lengths and CLD data at designated times. The collection of the milled samples for sieve analysis and PSD evaluation were coordinated with the timing of the FBRM determinations. Both FBRM and sieve analysis resulted in similar bimodal distributions for all ten manufactured batches studied. Within the experimental space studied, the granulator screw speed (650-850 rpm) and Comil® impeller speed (1,000-2,000 rpm) did not have a significant effect on CLD, PSD, bulk density, tapped density, Compressibility Index, and Flowability Index (p value > 0.05).

Concepts: Density, Particle size distribution, Chemical engineering, Bulk density, Particulates, Particle size, Toner, Sieve analysis


Images from the OSIRIS scientific imaging system onboard Rosetta show that the nucleus of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko consists of two lobes connected by a short neck. The nucleus has a bulk density less than half that of water. Activity at a distance from the Sun of >3 astronomical units is predominantly from the neck, where jets have been seen consistently. The nucleus rotates about the principal axis of momentum. The surface morphology suggests that the removal of larger volumes of material, possibly via explosive release of subsurface pressure or via creation of overhangs by sublimation, may be a major mass loss process. The shape raises the question of whether the two lobes represent a contact binary formed 4.5 billion years ago, or a single body where a gap has evolved via mass loss.

Concepts: Density, Sun, Mars, Moon, Jupiter, Bulk density, Astronomical unit, Comet


High-resolution gravity data obtained from the dual Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) spacecraft show that the bulk density of the Moon’s highlands crust is 2550 kg m(-3), substantially lower than generally assumed. When combined with remote sensing and sample data, this density implies an average crustal porosity of 12% to depths of at least a few kilometers. Lateral variations in crustal porosity correlate with the largest impact basins, whereas lateral variations in crustal density correlate with crustal composition. The low bulk crustal density allows construction of a global crustal thickness model that satisfies the Apollo seismic constraints, and with an average crustal thickness between 34 and 43 km, the bulk refractory element composition of the Moon is not required to be enriched with respect to that of Earth.

Concepts: Density, Earth, Moon, Porosity, Bulk density, Impact crater, Astronomical unit, Apollo 11


Mangrove forests have the potential to export carbon to adjacent ecosystems but whether mangrove-derived organic carbon (OC) would enhance the soil OC storage in seagrass meadows adjacent to mangroves is unclear. In this study we examine the potential for the contribution of mangrove OC to seagrass soils on the coast of North Sulawesi, Indonesia. We found that seagrass meadows adjacent to mangroves had significantly higher soil OC concentrations, soil OC with lower δ (13)C, and lower bulk density than those at the non-mangrove adjacent meadows. Soil OC storage to 30 cm depth ranged from 3.21 to 6.82 kg C m(-2), and was also significantly higher at the mangrove adjacent meadows than those non-adjacent meadows. δ(13)C analyses revealed that mangrove OC contributed 34 to 83% to soil OC at the mangrove adjacent meadows. The δ(13)C value of seagrass plants was also different between the seagrasses adjacent to mangroves and those which were not, with lower values measured at the seagrasses adjacent to mangroves. Moreover, we found significant spatial variation in both soil OC concentration and storage, with values decreasing toward sea, and the contribution of mangrove-derived carbon also reduced with distance from the forest.

Concepts: Density, Soil, Ecosystem, Carbon, Bulk density, Salt marsh, Mangrove, Seagrass