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Concept: Budesonide


Background Concerns remain about the safety of adding long-acting β2-agonists to inhaled glucocorticoids for the treatment of asthma. In a postmarketing safety study mandated by the Food and Drug Administration, we evaluated whether the addition of formoterol to budesonide maintenance therapy increased the risk of serious asthma-related events in patients with asthma. Methods In this multicenter, double-blind, 26-week study, we randomly assigned patients, 12 years of age or older, who had persistent asthma, were receiving daily asthma medication, and had had one to four asthma exacerbations in the previous year to receive budesonide-formoterol or budesonide alone. Patients with a history of life-threatening asthma were excluded. The primary end point was the first serious asthma-related event (a composite of adjudicated death, intubation, and hospitalization), as assessed in a time-to-event analysis. The noninferiority of budesonide-formoterol to budesonide was defined as an upper limit of the 95% confidence interval for the risk of the primary safety end point of less than 2.0. The primary efficacy end point was the first asthma exacerbation, as assessed in a time-to-event analysis. Results A total of 11,693 patients underwent randomization, of whom 5846 were assigned to receive budesonide-formoterol and 5847 to receive budesonide. A serious asthma-related event occurred in 43 patients who were receiving budesonide-formoterol and in 40 patients who were receiving budesonide (hazard ratio, 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.70 to 1.65]); budesonide-formoterol was shown to be noninferior to budesonide alone. There were two asthma-related deaths, both in the budesonide-formoterol group; one of these patients had undergone an asthma-related intubation. The risk of an asthma exacerbation was 16.5% lower with budesonide-formoterol than with budesonide (hazard ratio, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.74 to 0.94; P=0.002). Conclusions Among adolescents and adults with predominantly moderate-to-severe asthma, treatment with budesonide-formoterol was associated with a lower risk of asthma exacerbations than budesonide and a similar risk of serious asthma-related events. (Funded by AstraZeneca; number, NCT01444430 .).

Concepts: Asthma, Interval finite element, Glucocorticoid, Randomness, Confidence interval, Formoterol, AstraZeneca, Budesonide


Owing to their side effects, administration of steroids for bronchial asthma attacks should be minimized. We investigated whether budesonide inhalation suspension (BIS) could replace intravenous steroid administration for the treatment of moderate bronchial asthma attacks.

Concepts: Immune system, Asthma, Corticosteroid, Glucocorticoid, Bronchiole, Bronchodilator, Budesonide


Daily inhaled glucocorticoids are recommended for young children at risk for asthma exacerbations, as indicated by a positive value on the modified asthma predictive index (API) and an exacerbation in the preceding year, but concern remains about daily adherence and effects on growth. We compared daily therapy with intermittent therapy.

Concepts: Immune system, Asthma, Glucocorticoid, Linguistics, Investment, Rhinitis, Budesonide


Air pollution exposure may contribute to rhinoconjunctivitis morbidity in children with underlying airways disease. Prior studies have not assessed rhinoconjunctivitis-related quality of life (QOL) in children with asthma chronically exposed to air pollution.

Concepts: Asthma, Allergy, Quality, Quality of life, Glucocorticoid, Rhinitis, Human Development Index, Budesonide


A small population of patients with severe asthma does not respond to glucocorticoids (steroid resistant [SR]). They have high morbidity, highlighting an urgent need for strategies to enhance glucocorticoid responsiveness.

Concepts: Immune system, Asthma, Corticosteroid, Glucocorticoid, Steroid, Steroid hormone, Budesonide


The experimental model of combined allergic rhinitis and asthma syndrome (CARAS) has shown that CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODNs) are potential inhibitors of type 2 helper cell-driven inflammatory responses. Currently available CpG-ODNs modestly inhibit allergic responses in CARAS, while a combination strategy for upper airway treatment by co-administration of CpG-ODNs and glucocorticoids may show good efficacy. This study aimed to assess the therapeutic effects of CpG-ODNs combined with budesonide (BUD) on upper and lower-airway inflammation and remodeling in mice with CARAS induced by chronic exposure to ovalbumin (OVA), exploring the possible underlying molecular mechanisms. A BALB/c mouse model of chronic CARAS was established by systemic sensitization and repeated challenge with OVA. Treatment with CpG-ODNs or BUD by intranasal administration was started 1 h after OVA challenge. Then, nasal mucosa and lung tissues were fixed and stained for pathologic analysis. The resulting immunologic variables and TSLP-DC-OX40L axis parameters were evaluated. Both CpG-ODNs and BUD intranasal administration are effective on reducing Th2-type airway inflammation and tissue remodeling. Co-administration of CpG-ODNs and BUD was more effective than each monotherapy in attenuating upper and lower-airway inflammation as well as airway remodeling in chronic CARAS. Notably, combination of CpG-ODNs with BUD modulated the TSLP-DC-OX40L axis, as demonstrated by decreased TSLP production in the nose and lung, alongside decreased TSLPR and OX40L in DC. Intranasal co-administration of CpG-ODNs and BUD synergistically alleviates airway inflammation and tissue remodeling in experimental chronic CARAS, through shared cellular pathways, as a potent antagonist of the TSLP-DC-OX40L axis.

Concepts: Immune system, Inflammation, Asthma, Allergy, Glucocorticoid, Mucus, Rhinitis, Budesonide


Asthma is characterized by chronic airway inflammation, leading to structura1 changes in the airway, collectively termed airway remodeling. Airway remodeling is thought to contribute to airway hyper responsiveness and irreversible airflow limitation. The combination of Herba Epimedii (HE) and Fructus Ligustri Lucidi (FLL) decoction and the systemic administration of glucocorticoids (GC) had a synergistic inhibitory action on airway inflammation in the asthmatic model rats. However, the effects of the combination on airway remodeling have not been studied and compared. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the co-administration of combined extracts of HE and FLL with inhaled GC (budesonide) on airway remodeling in the rat asthmatic model induced by ovalbumin (OVA).

Concepts: Immune system, Inflammation, Asthma, Chronic, Glucocorticoid, Rat, Rhinitis, Budesonide


The mTOR pathway has been implicated in immune functions; however, its role in asthma is not well understood. We found that patients experiencing an asthma attack, when compared with patients in asthma remission, showed significantly elevated serum mTOR pathway activation, increased Th17 cells and IL-4, and decreased Treg cells and IFN-γ. In patients experiencing asthma, mTOR activation was positively correlated with the loss of Th17/Treg and Th1/Th2 balance. The role of mTOR in asthma was further confirmed using an ovalbumin-induced asthmatic mouse model. The mTOR pathway was activated in asthmatic mice, demonstrated by elevated levels of p-PI3K, p-Akt, p-mTOR, and p-p70S6k, and this activation was significantly reduced by treatment with budenoside or mTOR pathway inhibitors. Moreover, mTOR pathway inhibitor treatment reduced asthmatic markers and reversed the Th17/Treg and Th1/Th2 imbalances in asthmatic mice. Finally, different mTOR pathway inhibitor treatments have different inhibitory effects on signaling molecules in asthmatic mice. In summary, mTOR is activated during asthma onset and suppressed during asthma remission, and inhibiting the mTOR pathway in asthmatic mice alleviates asthmatic markers and restores the balances of Th17/Treg and Th1/Th2 cytokines. These data strongly suggest a critical requirement for mTOR pathway activation in asthma onset, suggesting potential targets for asthma treatments.

Concepts: Immune system, Asthma, Inhibitor, Mammalian target of rapamycin, Balance, Budesonide



Mono- and polysensitization are different IgE-mediated allergic phenotypes in children. Allergic sensitization is associated with both allergic asthma and allergic rhinitis, however, associations between the sensitization pattern and particularly polysensitization with asthma and rhinitis remains poorly studied in adults.

Concepts: Immune system, Asthma, Allergy, Atopy, Glucocorticoid, Rhinitis, Hygiene hypothesis, Budesonide