The preparation and consumption of bone broth is being increasingly recommended to patients, for example as part of the gut and psychology syndrome (GAPS) diet for autism, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, dyslexia, dyspraxia, depression and schizophrenia, and as part of the paleolithic diet. However, bones are known to sequester the heavy metal lead, contamination with which is widespread throughout the modern environment. Such sequestered lead can then be mobilised from the bones. We therefore hypothesised that bone broth might carry a risk of being contaminated with lead. A small, blinded, controlled study of lead concentrations in three different types of organic chicken broth showed that such broths do indeed contain several times the lead concentration of the water with which the broth is made. In particular, broth made from skin and cartilage taken off the bone once the chicken had been cooked with the bones in situ, and chicken-bone broth, were both found to have markedly high lead concentrations, of 9.5 and 7.01μgL(-1), respectively (compared with a control value for tap water treated in the same way of 0.89μgL(-1)). In view of the dangers of lead consumption to the human body, we recommend that doctors and nutritionists take the risk of lead contamination into consideration when advising patients about bone broth diets.
Little is known about the effect of serving temperature on saltiness perception in food products such as soups that are typically consumed at high temperature. This study focused on determining whether serving temperature modulates saltiness perception in soup-base products. Eight trained panelists and 62 untrained consumers were asked to rate saltiness intensities in salt water, chicken broth, and miso soup, with serving temperatures of 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80 °C. Neither trained nor untrained panelists were able to find significant difference in the saltiness intensity among salt water samples served at these five different temperatures. However, untrained consumers (but not trained panelists) rated chicken broth and miso soup to be significantly saltier when served at 70 and/or 80 °C compared to when served at 40 to 60 °C. There was an interaction between temperature-related perceived saltiness and preference; for example, consumers who preferred soups served at lower temperatures found soups served at higher temperatures to be less salty. Consumers who frequently consumed hot dishes rated soup samples served at 60 °C as saltier than consumers who consumed hot dishes less frequently. This study demonstrates that soup serving temperature and consumer dietary habits are influential factors affecting saltiness perception of soup.
Culture-based detection of nontyphoidal Salmonella spp. in foods requires at least four working days; therefore, new detection methods that shorten the test time are needed. In this study, we developed a novel single-step Salmonella enrichment broth, SSE-1, and compared its detection capability with that of commercial single-step ONE broth-Salmonella (OBS) medium and a conventional two-step enrichment method using buffered peptone water and Rappaport-Vassiliadis soy broth (BPW-RVS). Minimally processed lettuce samples were artificially inoculated with low levels of healthy and cold-injured Salmonella Enteritidis (10(0) or 10(1) colony-forming unit/25 g), incubated in OBS, BPW-RVS, and SSE-1 broths, and streaked on xylose lysine deoxycholate (XLD) agar. Salmonella recoverability was significantly higher in BPW-RVS (79.2%) and SSE-1 (83.3%) compared to OBS (39.3%) (p < 0.05). Our data suggest that the SSE-1 single-step enrichment broth could completely replace two-step enrichment with reduced enrichment time from 48 to 24 h, performing better than commercial single-step enrichment medium in the conventional nonchromogenic Salmonella detection, thus saving time, labor, and cost.
The objective of this study was to characterise Campylobacter growth in enrichment broths (Bolton broth, brain heart infusion broth), caecal material (in vitro), and in the naturally infected live broilers (in vivo) in terms of mean lag periods and generation times as well as maximum growth rates and population (cell concentration) achieved.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate (i) the behavior of several strains of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups (O26, O103, O111, and O145) exposed to different stress conditions and (ii) the growth dynamics of stressed and nonstressed non-O157 STEC cells in five enrichment media. STEC strains were exposed to acid, cold, and freeze stresses. Lethal and sublethal injuries were determined by plating in parallel on selective and nonselective agar media. Freeze stress (8 days, 20°C) caused the most lethal (95.3% ± 2.5%) injury, as well as the most sublethal (89.1% ± 8.8%) injury in the surviving population. Growth of stressed and nonstressed pure cultures of non-O157 STEC on modified tryptic soy broth, buffered peptone water (BPW), BPW with sodium pyruvate, Brila, and STEC enrichment broth (SEB) was determined using total viable counts. To compare growth capacities, growth after 7 and 24 h of enrichment was measured; lag phases and maximum growth rates were also calculated. In general, growth on BPW resulted in a short lag phase followed by a high maximum growth rate during the enrichment of all tested strains when using all three stress types. Furthermore, BPW ensured the highest STEC count after 7 h of growth. Supplementing the medium with sodium pyruvate did not improve the growth dynamics. The two selective media, Brila and SEB, were less efficient than BPW, but Brila’s enrichment performance was remarkably better than that of SEB. This study shows that irrespective of the effect of background flora, BPW is still recommended for resuscitation of non-O157 STEC.
This study was performed to optimiz eSalmonella Typhimurium recovery from raw duck wings with five nonselective broths (buffered peptone water, tryptic soy broth, lactose broth, universal preenrichment broth, nutrient broth) and four selective broths (selenite broth, BAX System MP media [MP], Salmonella AD media [AD], ONE broth-Salmonella [OB]). Healthy or heat-injured (50 and 85% injury) cells were inoculated at a level of 10(2), 10(1), or 10(0) CFU/25 g on raw duck wings. Growth was modeled using DMfit with four growth parameters: lag-phase duration, maximum growth rate, doubling time, and maximum population density. Most enrichments were able to recover Salmonella Typhimurium to greater than 6 log CFU/ml. AD, MP, and OB had significantly (P < 0.05) higher maximum growth rate (0.9 to 1.0/h) and lower doubling time (0.7 to 0.8 h). Buffered peptone water, AD, MP, and OB recovered healthy and 50%-injured cells at low inoculum levels to more than 6.0 log CFU/ml; OB achieved the greatest recovery (7.6 and 7.9 log CFU/ml), following 24 h of incubation. The 85%-injured cells at 10(0) and 10(1) CFU/25 g, however, were only recovered in OB, reaching 7.3 and 7.5 log CFU/ml, respectively. These results suggest that OB may be an appropriate enrichment broth for the recovery of Salmonella Typhimurium from raw duck wings in standard diagnostic tests or other rapid detection methods, to avoid false-negative results.
As part of the donor assessment protocol, bioburden assessment must be performed on allograft musculoskeletal tissue samples collected at the time of tissue retrieval. Swab samples of musculoskeletal tissue allografts from cadaveric donors are received at the microbiology department of the South Eastern Area Laboratory Services (Australia) to determine the presence of bacteria and fungi. This study will review the isolation rate of organisms from solid agar and broth culture of swab samples of cadaveric allograft musculoskeletal tissue over a 6-year period, 2006-2011. Swabs were inoculated onto horse blood agar (anaerobic, 35 °C) and chocolate agar (CO(2), 35 °C) and then placed into a cooked meat broth (aerobic, 35 °C). A total of 1,912 swabs from 389 donors were received during the study period. 557 (29.1 %) swabs were culture positive with the isolation of 713 organisms, 249 (34.9 %) from solid agar culture and an additional 464 (65.1 %) from broth culture only. This study has shown that the broth culture of cadaveric allograft musculoskeletal swab samples recovered a greater amount of organisms than solid agar culture. Isolates such as Clostridium species and Staphylococcus aureus would not have been isolated from solid agar culture alone. Broth culture is an essential part of the bioburden assessment protocol of swab samples of cadaveric allograft musculoskeletal tissue in this laboratory.