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Concept: Bronchoscopy


Bronchoscopy is often the initial diagnostic procedure performed in patients with pulmonary lesions suspicious for lung cancer. A bronchial genomic classifier was previously validated to identify patients at low risk for lung cancer after an inconclusive bronchoscopy. In this study, we evaluate the potential of the classifier to reduce invasive procedure utilization in patients with suspected lung cancer.

Concepts: Bronchoscopy, Cancer staging, Alveolar duct, Pneumonia, Epidemiology, Cancer, Pulmonology, Lung cancer


Camera-guided instruments, such as endoscopes, have become an essential component of contemporary medicine. The 15-20 million endoscopies performed every year in the United States alone demonstrate the tremendous impact of this technology. However, doctors heavily rely on the visual feedback provided by the endoscope camera, which is routinely compromised when body fluids and fogging occlude the lens, requiring lengthy cleaning procedures that include irrigation, tissue rubbing, suction, and even temporary removal of the endoscope for external cleaning. Bronchoscopies are especially affected because they are performed on delicate tissue, in high-humidity environments with exposure to extremely adhesive biological fluids such as mucus and blood. Here, we present a repellent, liquid-infused coating on an endoscope lens capable of preventing vision loss after repeated submersions in blood and mucus. The material properties of the coating, including conformability, mechanical adhesion, transparency, oil type, and biocompatibility, were optimized in comprehensive in vitro and ex vivo studies. Extensive bronchoscopy procedures performed in vivo on porcine lungs showed significantly reduced fouling, resulting in either unnecessary or ∼10-15 times shorter and less intensive lens clearing procedures compared with an untreated endoscope. We believe that the material developed in this study opens up opportunities in the design of next-generation endoscopes that will improve visual field, display unprecedented antibacterial and antifouling properties, reduce the duration of the procedure, and enable visualization of currently unreachable parts of the body, thus offering enormous potential for disease diagnosis and treatment.

Concepts: Optical fiber, Blood, In vitro, Bronchoscopy, Endoscopy, In vivo


Abstract Objective. Colonoscopy is the method of choice for examining patients with lower gastrointestinal symptoms. The procedure is, however, in many cases, associated with pain and impaired compliance. Magnetic endoscopic imaging (MEI) generates a three-dimensional image of the colonoscope on a computer screen which may enable the colonoscopist to avoid looping, and consequently improve patient satisfaction. Material and methods. In this randomized controlled trial, 200 outpatients referred to colonoscopy at Østfold Hospital Trust, Fredrikstad, Norway, were included. Patients were randomized to either the standard arm (using fluoroscopy on demand, n = 100), or the MEI arm (n = 100). End points were time to cecum, subjective pain experiences, and use of sedation or analgesics. Results. Out of a total of 200 patients, 54% were men. However, no significant differences between the groups according to gender were found. Fluoroscopy was applied in 23% of the cases in the standard group. Use of MEI was associated with decreased time to cecum (p < 0.05), decreased pain scores (Visual Analogue Scale, p < 0.05), decreased need of analgesia (p < 0.01), and decreased amount of administered midazolam and pethidin (p < 0.05 in both). Conclusions. MEI during colonoscopy was associated with decreased pain and less on-demand requests for sedation and analgesia. In addition, the use of MEI reduced the cecal intubation time. Consequently the implementation of magnetic endoscopic imaging in the endoscopy suits may be beneficial, particularly in the clinically difficult cases.

Concepts: Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, Bronchoscopy, Sigmoidoscopy, Opioid, Cecum, Randomized controlled trial, Endoscopy, Colonoscopy


Although the diagnostic yield of guided bronchoscopy for peripheral pulmonary lesions has improved to 70%, it is still low compared with transthoracic needle aspiration. We produced a new bronchoscope with middle-range diameter and large channel (BF-Y0053, Olympus, Japan), and evaluated its diagnostic efficacy for peripheral pulmonary lesions.

Concepts: Bronchoscopy, Pulmonology


Endotracheal intubation is frequently complicated by laryngeal edema, which may present as postextubation stridor or respiratory difficulty or both. Ultimately, postextubation laryngeal edema may result in respiratory failure with subsequent reintubation. Risk factors for postextubation laryngeal edema include female gender, large tube size, and prolonged intubation. Although patients at low risk for postextubation respiratory insufficiency due to laryngeal edema can be identified by the cuff leak test or laryngeal ultrasound, no reliable test for the identification of high-risk patients is currently available. If applied in a timely manner, intravenous or nebulized corticosteroids can prevent postextubation laryngeal edema; however, the inability to identify high-risk patients prevents the targeted pretreatment of these patients. Therefore, the decision to start corticosteroids should be made on an individual basis and on the basis of the outcome of the cuff leak test and additional risk factors. The preferential treatment of postextubation laryngeal edema consists of intravenous or nebulized corticosteroids combined with nebulized epinephrine, although no data on the optimal treatment algorithm are available. In the presence of respiratory failure, reintubation should be performed without delay. Application of noninvasive ventilation or inhalation of a helium/oxygen mixture is not indicated since it does not improve outcome and increases the delay to intubation.

Concepts: Intubation, Bronchoscopy, The Canon of Medicine, Decision theory, Mechanical ventilation, Causes of death, Edema, Pulmonary edema


Balloon tamponade is recommended only as a “bridge” to definitive therapy in patients with cirrhosis and massive or refractory esophageal variceal bleeding, but is frequently associated with rebleeding and severe complications. Preliminary, non-controlled data suggest that a self-expandable esophageal covered metal stent (SX-ELLA Danis) may be an effective and safer alternative to balloon tamponade. We conducted a randomized controlled trial aimed at comparing esophageal stent vs balloon tamponade in patients with cirrhosis and esophageal variceal bleeding refractory to medical and endoscopic treatment.

Concepts: Control, Endoscopy, Medical terms, Gastroenterology, Bronchoscopy, Balloon tamponade, Esophageal varices, Randomized controlled trial


Tracheobronchial foreign body (TFB) aspiration is a common occurrence in children compared with adults. Long-standing cases of TFB aspiration during childhood presenting in an adult have rarely been reported. We report the unique case of an endobronchial Playmobil traffic cone that went undetected for 40 years and presented as a suspected bronchogenic carcinoma. This was subsequently removed successfully with flexible bronchoscopy. To our knowledge this is the first case of a TFB that was overlooked this length of time.

Concepts: Report, Adult, Case, German language, English language, Bronchoscopy, Coming of age, Lung cancer


Awake fibreoptic intubation is often considered the technique of choice when a difficult airway is anticipated. However, videolaryngoscopes are being used more commonly. We searched the current literature and performed a meta-analysis to compare the use of videolaryngoscopy and fibreoptic bronchoscopy for awake tracheal intubation. Our primary outcome was the time needed to intubate the patient’s trachea. Secondary outcomes included: failed intubation; the rate of successful intubation at the first attempt; patient-reported satisfaction with the technique; and any complications resulting from intubation. Eight studies examining 429 patients were included in this review. The intubation time was shorter when videolaryngoscopy was used instead of fibreoptic bronchoscopy (seven trials, 408 participants, mean difference (95%CI) -45.7 (-66.0 to -25.4) s, p < 0.0001, low-quality evidence). There was no significant difference between the two techniques in the failure rate (six studies, 355 participants, risk ratio (95%CI) 1.01 (0.24-4.35), p = 0.99, low-quality evidence) or the first-attempt success rate (six studies, 391 participants, risk ratio (95%CI) 1.01 (0.95-1.06), p = 0.8, moderate quality evidence). The level of patient satisfaction was similar between both groups. No difference was found in two reported adverse events: hoarseness/sore throat (three studies, 167 participants, risk ratio (95%CI) 1.07 (0.62-1.85), p = 0.81, low-quality evidence), and low oxygen saturation (five studies, 337 participants, risk ratio (95%CI) 0.49 (0.22-1.12), p = 0.09, low-quality evidence). In summary, videolaryngoscopy for awake tracheal intubation is associated with a shorter intubation time. It also seems to have a success rate and safety profile comparable to fibreoptic bronchoscopy.

Concepts: Evidence-based medicine, Meta-analysis, Systematic review, The Canon of Medicine, Endotracheal tube, Bronchoscopy, Failure, Intubation


This Guideline is an official statement of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE). It addresses the removal of foreign bodies in the upper gastrointestinal tract in adults. Recommendations Nonendoscopic measures 1 ESGE recommends diagnostic evaluation based on the patient’s history and symptoms. ESGE recommends a physical examination focused on the patient’s general condition and to assess signs of any complications (strong recommendation, low quality evidence). 2 ESGE does not recommend radiological evaluation for patients with nonbony food bolus impaction without complications. We recommend plain radiography to assess the presence, location, size, configuration, and number of ingested foreign bodies if ingestion of radiopaque objects is suspected or type of object is unknown (strong recommendation, low quality evidence). 3 ESGE recommends computed tomography (CT) scan in all patients with suspected perforation or other complication that may require surgery (strong recommendation, low quality evidence). 4 ESGE does not recommend barium swallow, because of the risk of aspiration and worsening of the endoscopic visualization (strong recommendation, low quality evidence). 5 ESGE recommends clinical observation without the need for endoscopic removal for management of asymptomatic patients with ingestion of blunt and small objects (except batteries and magnets). If feasible, outpatient management is appropriate (strong recommendation, low quality evidence). 6 ESGE recommends close observation in asymptomatic individuals who have concealed packets of drugs by swallowing (“body packing”). We recommend against endoscopic retrieval. We recommend surgical referral in cases of suspected packet rupture, failure of packets to progress, or intestinal obstruction (strong recommendation, low quality evidence). Endoscopic measures 7 ESGE recommends emergent (preferably within 2 hours, but at the latest within 6 hours) therapeutic esophagogastroduodenoscopy for foreign bodies inducing complete esophageal obstruction, and for sharp-pointed objects or batteries in the esophagus. We recommend urgent (within 24 hours) therapeutic esophagogastroduodenoscopy for other esophageal foreign bodies without complete obstruction (strong recommendation, low quality evidence). 8 ESGE suggests treatment of food bolus impaction in the esophagus by gently pushing the bolus into the stomach. If this procedure is not successful, retrieval should be considered (weak recommendation, low quality evidence). The effectiveness of medical treatment of esophageal food bolus impaction is debated. It is therefore recommended, that medical treatment should not delay endoscopy (strong recommendation, low quality evidence). 9 In cases of food bolus impaction, ESGE recommends a diagnostic work-up for potential underlying disease, including histological evaluation, in addition to therapeutic endoscopy (strong recommendation, low quality evidence). 10 ESGE recommends urgent (within 24 hours) therapeutic esophagogastroduodenoscopy for foreign bodies in the stomach such as sharp-pointed objects, magnets, batteries and large/long objects. We suggest nonurgent (within 72 hours) therapeutic esophagogastroduodenoscopy for medium-sized blunt foreign bodies in the stomach (strong recommendation, low quality evidence). 11 ESGE recommends the use of a protective device in order to avoid esophagogastric/pharyngeal damage and aspiration during endoscopic extraction of sharp-pointed foreign bodies. Endotracheal intubation should be considered in the case of high risk of aspiration (strong recommendation, low quality evidence). 12 ESGE suggests the use of suitable extraction devices according to the type and location of the ingested foreign body (weak recommendation, low quality evidence). 13 After successful and uncomplicated endoscopic removal of ingested foreign bodies, ESGE suggests that the patient may be discharged. If foreign bodies are not or cannot be removed, a case-by-case approach depending on the size and type of the foreign body is suggested (weak recommendation, low quality evidence).

Concepts: Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, Bronchoscopy, Human gastrointestinal tract, Stomach, Digestion, Esophageal food bolus obstruction, Digestive system, Gastroenterology


Nasal high flow is a promising novel oxygen delivery device, whose mechanisms of action offer some beneficial effects over conventional oxygen systems. The administration of a high flow of heated and humidified gas mixture promotes higher and more stable inspiratory oxygen fraction values, decreases anatomical dead space and generates a positive airway pressure that can reduce the work of breathing and enhance patient comfort and tolerance. Nasal high flow has been used as a prophylactic tool or as a treatment device mostly in patients with acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure, with the majority of studies showing positive results. Recently, its clinical indications have been expanded to post-extubated patients in intensive care or following surgery, for pre- and peri-oxygenation during intubation, during bronchoscopy, in immunocompromised patients and in patients with “do not intubate” status. In the present review, we differentiate studies that suggest an advantage (benefit) from other studies that do not suggest an advantage (no benefit) compared to conventional oxygen devices or noninvasive ventilation, and propose an algorithm in cases of nasal high flow application in patients with acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure of almost any cause.

Concepts: Endotracheal tube, Bronchoscopy, Respiratory physiology, Intensive care medicine, Intubation, Pulmonology, Oxygen therapy, Mechanical ventilation