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Concept: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia


Previous results from our trial of early treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) versus early surfactant treatment in infants showed no significant difference in the outcome of death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia. A lower (vs. higher) target range of oxygen saturation was associated with a lower rate of severe retinopathy but higher mortality. We now report longer-term results from our prespecified hypotheses.

Concepts: Cardiology, Outcome, Pulse oximetry, Oxygen saturation, Oxygen sensor, Pulse oximeter, Bronchopulmonary dysplasia


INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), one of the most frequently occurring complications following preterm birth, is increasing due to increased survival of preterm infants. METHODS: Systematic literature review. CONCLUSION: The etiology is multifactorial, with prematurity being a prerequisite for the development of BPD. Over time, there have been many different and new treatment modalities, some of them have reduced the severity of the disease, but none of them have been able to impact upon the increasing incidence of BPD.

Concepts: Childbirth, Epidemiology, Disease, Incidence, Prevalence, Preterm birth, Debut albums, Bronchopulmonary dysplasia


A 23-week-old baby, born at 26(+2) weeks, presented to the hospital with critical respiratory failure, which was impossible to stabilize. She had unstable oxygen saturations between 35% and 95%. A presumptive diagnosis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia with associated pulmonary hypertensive crisis was made. In the absence of inhaled nitric oxide, 2 oral doses of 1 mg/kg sildenafil were given, with a dramatic improvement 30 to 45 minutes later. Her oxygenation index fell from 43 to 14. She made a full recovery and was discharged from the hospital 2 weeks later.

Concepts: Pulmonology, Pneumonia, Cardiology, Nitrogen, Nitric oxide, Bronchopulmonary dysplasia


Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in premature infants. By the time symptoms appear it may already be too late to prevent a severe course, with bronchopulmonary dysplasia or mortality. We aimed to develop a rapid test of lung maturity for targeting surfactant supplementation.

Concepts: Pulmonology, Acute respiratory distress syndrome, Infant respiratory distress syndrome, Mucus, Bronchopulmonary dysplasia


Systemic glucocorticoids reduce the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia among extremely preterm infants, but they may compromise brain development. The effects of inhaled glucocorticoids on outcomes in these infants are unclear.

Concepts: Glucocorticoid, Preterm birth, Bronchopulmonary dysplasia


To reduce the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely-low-birth-weight infants, clinicians attempt to minimize the use of endotracheal intubation by the early introduction of less invasive forms of positive airway pressure.

Concepts: Mechanical ventilation, Endotracheal tube, Intubation, Bronchopulmonary dysplasia


Restrictive use of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) in preterm infants reduces the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Our objective was to determine its effect on neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) at 24 months' corrected age (CA).

Concepts: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia


To determine the long-term safety and outcomes of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for bronchopulmonary dysplasia in premature infants enrolled in a previous phase I clinical trial up to 2 years of corrected age (CA).

Concepts: Clinical trial, Stem cell, Mesenchymal stem cell, Bone marrow, Stem cells,, Mesenchyme, Bronchopulmonary dysplasia


We hypothesised that a prophylactic inhaled steroid would prevent the progression of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in extremely low birthweight infants (ELBWIs).

Concepts: Randomized controlled trial, Pediatrics, Birth mass, Anabolic steroid, Bronchopulmonary dysplasia


Less invasive surfactant administration (LISA) to spontaneously breathing preterm infants has been reported to reduce the duration of mechanical ventilation and the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in previous study. The objective of this study was to explore the feasibility and potential benefits of LISA in early preterm infants on nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) compared to conventional endotracheal instillation.

Concepts: Mechanical ventilation, Endotracheal tube, Positive airway pressure, Preterm birth, Bronchopulmonary dysplasia