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Concept: British Columbia Interior


Parascaris equorum generally infects horses less than 18 months old and its pathological effects can be severe. Infection occurs when larvated eggs, present in pastures, paddocks, stalls, and on feeding and watering equipment are ingested. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of windrow composting on the viability of P. equorum eggs at a cooperating central Kentucky horse farm. Three grams of feces containing 2216 P. equorum eggs per gram were sealed in filter bag sentinel chambers. Chambers were exposed to 1 of 3 treatments: constant exposure or intermittent exposure to the interior of the windrow; controls were stored at 4°C. At day 0, all chambers in the experimental treatments were placed in the center of 10 locations of the windrow. On subsequent days when the windrow was turned, chambers in the constant exposure treatment were returned to the interior of the windrow and chambers in the intermittent exposure treatment were alternated between resting on top of, or inside, the windrow. Chambers from each treatment and control chambers were removed at days 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 18; and incubated for 21 days at room temperature (24°C). After incubation, eggs were recovered from the chambers using double centrifugation flotation. Eggs were evaluated microscopically, staged according to development and classified as viable or nonviable based on whether embryonation to the larval stage had occurred. Results were reported as the mean percent viable eggs for each treatment and time point. A mixed linear model with repeated measures was used to evaluate the influence of experimental day and treatment on the percent viability of P. equorum eggs. Chambers treated with constant exposure contained 10.73% (SD=0.29) viable eggs on day 2 and declined to an average of 0.00% by day 8. Chambers exposed to the intermittent treatment contained 16.08% (SD=0.26) viable eggs on day 2 and decreased to 0.00% by day 6. Control chambers for days 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 18 all had viabilities above 79.00%. A significant fixed effect of experimental day (p<0.0001) and compost treatment (p<0.0001) was observed. There was no significant interaction between experimental day and compost treatment (p>0.7459). The results of this study demonstrate that windrow composting was effective at rendering P. equorum eggs nonviable when it was tested under the conditions at a working horse farm.

Concepts: Larva, Effectiveness, Compost, Composting, British Columbia Interior, Vermicompost, In-vessel composting, Gram


Soldiers in military vehicles subjected to underbelly blasts can sustain traumatic head and neck injuries due to a head impact with the roof. The severity of head and neck trauma can be influenced by the amount of head clearance available to the occupant, but also by other factors such as wearing a military helmet or the presence of padding on the interior roof. The aim of the current study was to examine the interaction between a Hybrid III headform, the helmet system and the interior roof of the vehicle under vertical loading.

Concepts: Head and neck anatomy, Head and neck, Injuries, Physical trauma, Concussion, British Columbia, British Columbia Interior, Helmet


This study compared obese and non-obese drivers in the preferred seat and steering wheel setting and preferred driving posture. Twenty-one extremely obese and twenty-three non-obese drivers participated. Each participant determined the most preferred setting of the interior components using an adjustable vehicle mock-up; the preferred components setting and corresponding preferred driving posture were recorded. The participant groups exhibited significant differences in the preferred interior components setting. The obese group created larger steering wheel-seat space than the non-obese, with greater rearward seat displacement, more upright steering wheel angle and smaller steering wheel column displacement. It also exhibited more upright seatback angle deemed necessary for facilitating steering wheel reach with the increased steering wheel-seat distance. The between-group differences in the preferred driving posture were less pronounced: no significant group mean angle differences were found except for the elbow joint angles. Also, the mean hip joint centre positions did not significantly differ. Practitioner Summary: To contribute to larger driver packaging, this study compared obese and non-obese drivers in the preferred vehicle interior components setting and driving posture. The obese group created significantly larger space between the steering wheel and seat than the non-obese, through interior components adjustments. The between-group postural differences were less pronounced.

Concepts: Elbow, Hip, Joints, Angle, Extension, Automobile, British Columbia Interior, Steering wheel


Self-assembly has proven to be a widely successful synthetic strategy for functional materials, especially for metal-organic materials (MOMs), an emerging class of porous materials consisting of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and metal-organic polyhedra (MOPs). However, there are areas in MOM synthesis in which such self-assembly has not been fully utilized, such as controlling the interior of MOM crystals. Here we demonstrate sequential self-assembly strategy for synthesizing various forms of MOM crystals, including double-shell hollow MOMs, based on single-crystal to single-crystal transformation from MOP to MOF. Moreover, this synthetic strategy also yields other forms, such as solid, core-shell, double and triple matryoshka, and single-shell hollow MOMs, thereby exhibiting form evolution in MOMs. We anticipate that this synthetic approach might open up a new direction for the development of diverse forms in MOMs, with highly advanced areas such as sequential drug delivery/release and heterogeneous cascade catalysis targeted in the foreseeable future.

Concepts: Solid, Mother, Theory of Forms, Porous medium, British Columbia Interior, Mop, Rag Mop


The communication of changes in the extracellular matrix to the interior of the cell is crucial for a cell’s function. The extracellular peptides of the RAPID ALKALINIZATION FACTOR (RALF) family have been identified as ligands of receptor-like kinases of the CrRLK1L subclass, but the exact mechanism of their perception is unclear. We found that Arabidopsis RALF4 and RALF19 redundantly regulate pollen tube integrity and growth, and that their function depends on pollen-expressed proteins of the LEUCINE-RICH REPEAT EXTENSIN (LRX) family, which play a role in cell wall development but whose mode of action is not understood. The LRX proteins interact with RALFs, monitoring cell wall changes, which are communicated to the interior of the pollen tube via the CrRLK1L pathway to sustain normal growth.

Concepts: Protein, Cell, Amino acid, Enzyme, Cell membrane, Group, British Columbia Interior


We present a rapid prototyping technique that expands elastomeric valving capabilities to devices made from thin materials such as plastic films and tapes. The time required from conception to full fabrication of functional devices is within a few hours. A key characteristic of this technology is that devices are thin (typically less than 0.5 mm in thickness), which allows for the fabrication of devices with many layers. This feature also permits folding of devices into 3D structures having fully functional valves. We illustrate this concept with the fabrication of a 25 mm-per-side cube whose walls contain microfluidic channels and valves. Control of liquid delivery through the faces of the cube is demonstrated with a chemotaxis experiment of C. elegans migrating within the enclosed volume of the cube as stimuli are delivered through the walls of the cube to the interior faces.

Concepts: Volume, Caenorhabditis elegans, Diagram, Faces, Microfluidics, Pneumatics, British Columbia Interior, Fluidics


States of self-stress-tensions and compressions of structural elements that result in zero net forces-play an important role in determining the load-bearing ability of structures ranging from bridges to metamaterials with tunable mechanical properties. We exploit a class of recently introduced states of self-stress analogous to topological quantum states to sculpt localized buckling regions in the interior of periodic cellular metamaterials. Although the topological states of self-stress arise in the linear response of an idealized mechanical frame of harmonic springs connected by freely hinged joints, they leave a distinct signature in the nonlinear buckling behavior of a cellular material built out of elastic beams with rigid joints. The salient feature of these localized buckling regions is that they are indistinguishable from their surroundings as far as material parameters or connectivity of their constituent elements are concerned. Furthermore, they are robust against a wide range of structural perturbations. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this topological design through analytical and numerical calculations as well as buckling experiments performed on two- and three-dimensional metamaterials built out of stacked kagome lattices.

Concepts: Mathematics, Structure, Chemistry, Materials science, Real number, Structural engineering, British Columbia Interior, Tunable metamaterials


Within the materials science community, proteins with cage-like architectures are being developed as versatile nanoscale platforms for use in protein nanotechnology. Much effort has been focused on the functionalization of protein cages with biological and non-biological moieties to bring about new properties of not only individual protein cages, but collective bulk-scale assemblies of protein cages. In this review, we report on the current understanding of protein cage assembly, both of the cages themselves from individual subunits, and the assembly of the individual protein cages into higher order structures. We start by discussing the key properties of natural protein cages (for example: size, shape and structure) followed by a review of some of the mechanisms of protein cage assembly and the factors that influence it. We then explore the current approaches for functionalizing protein cages, on the interior or exterior surfaces of the capsids. Lastly, we explore the emerging area of higher order assemblies created from individual protein cages and their potential for new and exciting collective properties.

Concepts: DNA, Protein, Structure, The Key, The Current, The Assembly, Interior, British Columbia Interior


The epidemiology of Streptococcus anginosus group (SaG) bloodstream infections (BSI) has not been well defined in non-selected populations. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence, risk factors and outcome associated with SaG BSI.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Provinces and territories of Canada, Canada, British Columbia, British Columbia Interior, Lower Mainland, Fraser Canyon, Whistler, British Columbia


A novel tool, the endocranial illuminator (EI), has been devised to facilitate examination of the interior of the intact human cranium. A number of the endocranial characteristics including cranial thickness, sutural complexities, and foramina are easy visible with this device. The EI enhances the accuracy of anatomical examination of the cranial vault in forensic, archaeological, and historical crania in those cases where they must remain intact. The EI is simple and inexpensive to construct and lightweight so it can be used in the laboratory or easily transported in the field.

Concepts: Skull, Cranial nerves, Anatomy, Anthropology, Anatomical terms of location, British Columbia Interior, Craniometry, Cranial vault