Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Bridge


A small library of divalent fucosidase inhibitors containing pyrrolidine motifs and separated by polyamino and triazole-benzylated spacers was prepared and evaluated as α-fucosidase inhibitors. Although a weak multivalent effect was observed in polyamino derived dimers, useful structural information can be deduced about the length of the bridge, the number of nitrogen atoms present and the moieties close to the pyrrolidine. Within these investigations one of the best α-fucosidase inhibitors containing a pyrrolidine framework was obtained (, Ki = 3.7 nM).

Concepts: .NET Framework, Contract bridge, Bridge, Nitrogen


Preclinical dental students must demonstrate aptitude in the preparation of teeth for treatment with several types of fixed dental prostheses. The optimal sequence of instruction and examination of these crown preparations in preclinical fixed prosthodontics is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine if grading scores by faculty and students were affected by changing the sequence of crown type preparations. Practical exams of two successive student cohorts (n=89 in 2014; n=92 in 2015) at one U.S. dental school using three crown preparations (full cast, porcelain fused to metal, and all-ceramic) in different order were analyzed by faculty grades and student self-assessment. All of the models indicated that the sequence in which the crown type preparations were taught did have an effect on the grades. The 2014 cohort had overall higher grades and particularly higher grades for the all-ceramic crown preparations. Evaluation scores were affected by the sequence in which the different crown type preparations were taught and tested. Although the overall results suggested that students may perform better if the all-ceramic crown preparation is taught last, this tendency may differ between years.

Concepts: Inlays and onlays, Fixed prosthodontics, Restorative dentistry, CAD/CAM Dentistry, Crown, Prosthodontology, Bridge, Dental restoration


The ability of individual animals to create functional structures by joining together is rare and confined to the social insects. Army ants (Eciton) form collective assemblages out of their own bodies to perform a variety of functions that benefit the entire colony. Here we examine ‟bridges" of linked individuals that are constructed to span gaps in the colony’s foraging trail. How these living structures adjust themselves to varied and changing conditions remains poorly understood. Our field experiments show that the ants continuously modify their bridges, such that these structures lengthen, widen, and change position in response to traffic levels and environmental geometry. Ants initiate bridges where their path deviates from their incoming direction and move the bridges over time to create shortcuts over large gaps. The final position of the structure depended on the intensity of the traffic and the extent of path deviation and was influenced by a cost-benefit trade-off at the colony level, where the benefit of increased foraging trail efficiency was balanced by the cost of removing workers from the foraging pool to form the structure. To examine this trade-off, we quantified the geometric relationship between costs and benefits revealed by our experiments. We then constructed a model to determine the bridge location that maximized foraging rate, which qualitatively matched the observed movement of bridges. Our results highlight how animal self-assemblages can be dynamically modified in response to a group-level cost-benefit trade-off, without any individual unit’s having information on global benefits or costs.

Concepts: Geometry, Bridge, Cost-benefit analysis, Army ant, Evaluation methods, Costs, Ant, Cost


Remote sensing allows an animal to extend its morphology with appropriate conductive materials and sensors providing environmental feedback from spatially removed locations. For example, the sector web spider Zygiella x-notata uses a specialized thread as both a structural bridge and signal transmitter to monitor web vibrations from its retreat at the web perimeter. To unravel this model multifunctional system, we investigated Zygiella’s signal thread structure with a range of techniques, including tensile testing, laser vibrometry, electron microscopy and behavioural analysis. We found that signal threads varied significantly in the number of filaments; a result of the spider adding a lifeline each time it runs along the bridge. Our mechanical property analysis suggests that while the structure varies, its normalized load does not. We propose that the signal thread represents a complex and fully integrated multifunctional structure where filaments can be added, thus increasing absolute load-bearing capacity while maintaining signal fidelity. We conclude that such structures may serve as inspiration for remote sensing design strategies.

Concepts: Doomsday films, Bridge, Hyperlink, Electron, System, English-language films, Structure, Structural engineering


Disulfide bridge formation was investigated in helical aromatic oligoamide foldamers. Depending on the position of thiol-bearing side chains, exclusive intramolecular or intermolecular disulfide bridging may occur. The two processes are capable of self-sorting, presumably by dynamic exchange. Quantitative assessment of helix handedness inversion rates showed that bridging stabilizes the folded structures. Intermolecular disulfide bridging serendipitously yielded a well-defined, C2 -symmetrical, two-helix bundle-like macrocyclic structure in which complete control over relative handedness, that is, helix-helix handedness communication, is mediated remotely by the disulfide bridged side chains in the absence of contacts between helices. MM calculations suggest that this phenomenon is specific to a given side chain length and requires disulfide functions.

Concepts: Bridge, Double helix, Scientific method, Helices, Chirality, Spiral, Sociology, Helix


Habitat modifications resulting from human transportation and power-generation infrastructure (e.g., roads, dams, bridges) can impede movement and alter natural migration patterns of aquatic animal populations, which may negatively affect survival and population viability. Full or partial barriers are especially problematic for migratory species whose life histories hinge on habitat connectivity.

Concepts: Bridge, Population, Biology, Human migration, Transport, Hood Canal Bridge, Washington, Road


Drug consumption rooms (DCRs) have been implemented worldwide as a harm-reducing strategy. In 2012, Denmark passed legislation allowing establishment of DCRs. The aim of this study was to identify characteristics and gain knowledge of the way service users use the DCRs including bridge building to specialized health care. Associations between nationality, opioid substitution treatment (OST), drug intake method, and response to staff advice on harm-reducing education was investigated, as well as service user’s reasons for using the DCRs, and their perceptions of safety and trust in the DCRs.

Concepts: Health, Opioid, Bridge, Psychology, Nationality, Illness, Denmark, Health care


Do infants, like adults, consider both the probability of falling and the severity of a potential fall when deciding whether to cross a bridge? Crawling and walking infants were encouraged to cross bridges varying in width over a small drop-off, a large drop-off, or no drop-off. Bridge width affects the probability of falling, whereas drop-off height affects the severity of the potential fall. For both crawlers and walkers, decisions about crossing bridges depended only on the probability of falling: As bridge width decreased, attempts to cross decreased, and gait modifications and exploration increased, but behaviors did not differ between small and large drop-off conditions. Similarly, decisions about descent depended on the probability of falling: Infants backed or crawled into the small drop-off, but avoided the large drop-off. With no drop-off, infants ran straight across. Results indicate that experienced crawlers and walkers accurately perceive affordances for locomotion, but they do not yet consider the severity of a potential fall when making decisions for action.

Concepts: Bridge, Walking


Indirect restorations are an important treatment in dental practice, but long-term survival studies are lacking.

Concepts: Dental implant, Dental porcelain, Dentistry, Bridge, Restorative dentistry, CAD/CAM Dentistry, Dental restoration


The purpose of this in vitro investigation was to evaluate the sealing capability of the conical implant-abutment interfaces under different abutment screw torque values using titanium and zirconia abutments with Morse taper designs.

Concepts: Bridge, In vitro fertilisation, Design, In vitro, Abutment