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Concept: Bran

173

This study investigated whether increasing insoluble (predominantly wheat bran) fibre over 14 days improves subjective digestive feelings, general wellbeing and bowel function. A single centre, multi-site, open, within subjects design with a 14 day non-intervention (baseline) monitoring period followed by a 14 day fibre consumption (intervention) period was performed. 153 low fibre consumers (<15 g/day AOAC 985.29) completed a daily symptom diary for 14 days after which they consumed one bowl of ready-to-eat breakfast cereal containing at least 5.4 g fibre (3.5 g from wheat bran) for 14 days and completed a daily symptom diary. Significant improvements were demonstrated in subjective perception of bowel function (e.g., ease of defecation) and digestive feelings (bloating, constipation, feeling sluggish and digestive discomfort). Significant improvements were also found in subjective perception of general wellbeing (feeling less fat, more mentally alert, slim, happy and energetic whilst experiencing less stress, mental and physical tiredness, difficulty concentrating and fewer headaches). In general, improvements in study outcomes increased with increasing cereal/fibre consumption. However, consuming an additional minimum 5.4 g of fibre (3.5 g wheat bran) per day was shown to deliver measurable and significant benefits for digestive health, comfort and wellbeing. Encouraging consumption of relatively small amounts of wheat bran could also provide an effective method of increasing overall fibre consumption.

Concepts: Wheat, Maize, Rice, Oat, Bran, Breakfast, Porridge, Breakfast cereal

28

  Total of 3 different mixtures of rice bran oil (RBO), sheaolein (SO), and palm stearin (PS) (RBO : SO : PS, 40 : 35 : 25; 15 : 40 : 45; 10 : 35 : 55) were modified by enzymatic interesterification (EIE) using TLIM as a bio-catalyst. After interesterification, a physicochemical properties of selected ratio (10 : 35 : 55; RBO : SO : PS) was compared with chemical interesterification (CIE). CIE sample showed higher SFC than EIE in each measured temperature. DAG content was lower in CIE than EIE sample. Besides, each EIE or CIE products were compared with blends, where higher SFC, longer induction time was observed in the blends. Oxidative stability was measured based on Rancimat and peroxide value (PV) where EIE sample showed longer induction time and lower PV compared to CIE sample. Further, EIE sample was selected for oxidation studies and kept at 60 °C for 22 d after the addition of antioxidants (EGCG, rosemary) where induction time was significantly increased compared to control. EGCG containing sample showed longer induction time and lower PV compared to rosemary containing sample. Practical Application:  This research can show the application of SO in the bakery industry, which is a byproduct of shea butter production. There is very limited published information about SO application in bakery food. In addition, it could be useful for industrial application to compare the physicochemical properties of enzymatic interesterification compared to chemical interesterification.

Concepts: Wheat, Rice, Bran, Cereal germ, By-product, Chaff, Shea butter

27

The Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) producer, Bacillus licheniformis MSBN12 was isolated from the marine sponge Callyspongia diffusa. The PHB production of B. licheniformis MSBN12 was optimized using a four-factor Box-Behnken design to find the interactive effects of variables such as palm jaggery, wheat bran, seawater, and incubation temperature. The maximum yield of PHB (6.38 g/L) was achieved through response surface methodology-based optimization and the optimized conditions were further used for the batch and fed-batch fermentation. Maximum biomass was reached at 48 and 36 h of incubation with PHB accumulation of 62.91 and 67.16 % (w/w of dry cells) for batch and fed-batch process. The production of PHB under fed-batch process with B. licheniformis MSBN12 was increased threefold over shake flask culture when palm jaggery as sole carbon source. The ¹H NMR data was extrapolated with peaks of the PHB reference standard and confirmed as PHB analog.

Concepts: Wheat, Computer program, Maize, Bran, Mathematical optimization, Chaff, Bacillus licheniformis, Fed-batch

27

Ferulic acid (FA), which is present in the cell walls of some plants, is best known for its antioxidant property. By combining a commercial enzyme that shows FA esterase activity with several Streptomyces carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes, we succeeded in enhancing the enzymatic production of FA from defatted rice bran. In particular, the combination of three xylanases, an α-L-arabinofuranosidase, and an acetyl xylan esterase from Streptomyces spp. produced the highest increase in the amount of released FAs among all the enzymes in the Streptomyces enzymes library. This enzyme combination also had an effect on FA production from other biomasses, such as raw rice bran, wheat bran, and corncob.

Concepts: Cell, Bacteria, Enzyme, Wheat, Starch, Maize, Rice, Bran

27

An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of urea-treated fibrous diets on the intake, nutrient digestibility, performance and haematological parameters of Yankasa rams. A total of 48 Yankasa rams (BW 10.00 ± 1.50 kg; 6-8 months old) were allocated into four treatment groups in a completely randomised design (12 rams per treatment). Animals were placed on complete rations of yam peels, maize bran and rice husk treated with 0, 1.0, 1.5 or 2.0 % urea. The experiment lasted for 18 weeks. Yankasa rams fed with urea-treated diets had higher feed intake (949.88 and 938.04 g/day for U(15) and U(20), respectively), daily weight gain (227.67 and 181.00 g/day for U(15) and U(20), respectively) and better feed conversion ratio (4.17 and 5.18 for U(15) and U(20), respectively). Rams on urea-treated diets had higher haemoglobin and red blood cell contents and higher weight gains, indicating that urea treatment enhanced nutrient supply and utilisation at the tissue level. It was concluded that urea treatment of fibrous farm by-products is a promising feeding strategy especially during the dry season when there is scarcity of high-quality forages. Addition of 1.5 % urea to roughage diets and farm by-products to form a total mixed ration may preclude the search for supplements.

Concepts: Nutrition, Blood, Red blood cell, Liver, Anemia, Feed conversion ratio, Bran, Chaff

26

Abstract Soaking of cereal grains has been suggested as a method to reduce their phytate content and hence increase their mineral availability. Whole and milled wholegrain, normal and low phytate sorghum and normal maize were studied. Soaking of unmilled sorghum and maize did not result in substantial reductions in phytate or mineral contents. With milled grains, phytate solubilisation was somewhat greater in maize than in sorghum after a short (1 h) soaking period but not after 6-12 h of soaking when practically all phytate had been solubilised. Also, with milled, low phyate sorghums, phytate solubilisation was not substantially higher than in their null controls. Soaking milled grain substantially reduced mineral contents and Ca × phytate:zinc molar ratios. However, the loss in soluble minerals could have a greater negative effect on mineral availability, compared to the positive effect of the phytate reduction. Thus, soaking does not seem to be a viable household method to improve sorghum and maize mineral availability.

Concepts: Effect, Poaceae, Mineral, Cereal, Rice, Bran, Sorghum, Whole grain

23

Wheat bran and rye bran are mostly used as animal feed today, but their high content of dietary fiber and bioactive components are beneficial to human health. Increased use of bran as food raw material could therefore be desirable. However, bran mainly contains unextractable dietary fiber and deteriorates the sensory properties of products. Processing by extrusion could increase the extractability of dietary fiber and increase the sensory qualities of bran products. Wheat bran and rye bran were therefore extruded at different levels of moisture content, screw speed and temperature, in order to find the optimal setting for increased extractability of dietary fiber and positive sensory properties. A water content of 24% for wheat bran and 30% for rye bran, a screw speed of 400 rpm, and a temperature of 130 °C resulted in the highest extractability of total dietary fiber and arabinoxylan. Arabinoxylan extractability increased from 5.8% in wheat bran to 9.0% in extruded wheat bran at those settings, and from 14.6% to 19.2% for rye bran. Total contents of dietary fiber and arabinoxylan were not affected by extrusion. Content of β-glucan was also maintained during extrusion, while its molecular weight decreased slightly and extractability increased slightly. Extrusion at these settings is therefore a suitable process for increasing the use of wheat bran and rye bran as a food raw material.

Concepts: Nutrition, Wheat, Aluminium, Maize, Dietary fiber, Bran, Chaff, Arabinoxylan

8

Several studies have suggested a protective effect of intake of whole grains, but not refined grains on type 2 diabetes risk, but the dose-response relationship between different types of grains and type 2 diabetes has not been established. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies of grain intake and type 2 diabetes. We searched the PubMed database for studies of grain intake and risk of type 2 diabetes, up to June 5th, 2013. Summary relative risks were calculated using a random effects model. Sixteen cohort studies were included in the analyses. The summary relative risk per 3 servings per day was 0.68 (95 % CI 0.58-0.81, I(2) = 82 %, n = 10) for whole grains and 0.95 (95 % CI 0.88-1.04, I(2) = 53 %, n = 6) for refined grains. A nonlinear association was observed for whole grains, p nonlinearity < 0.0001, but not for refined grains, p nonlinearity = 0.10. Inverse associations were observed for subtypes of whole grains including whole grain bread, whole grain cereals, wheat bran and brown rice, but these results were based on few studies, while white rice was associated with increased risk. Our meta-analysis suggests that a high whole grain intake, but not refined grains, is associated with reduced type 2 diabetes risk. However, a positive association with intake of white rice and inverse associations between several specific types of whole grains and type 2 diabetes warrant further investigations. Our results support public health recommendations to replace refined grains with whole grains and suggest that at least two servings of whole grains per day should be consumed to reduce type 2 diabetes risk.

Concepts: Cereal, Rice, Bran, Cereals, Whole grain, Cereal germ, Refined grains, White rice

6

Diets high in wholegrains are associated with a 20-30% reduction in risk of developing type-2 diabetes (T2D), which is attributed to a variety of wholegrain components, notably dietary fibre, vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals. Most phytochemicals function as antioxidants in vitro and have the potential to mitigate oxidative stress and inflammation which are implicated in the pathogenesis of T2D. In this review we compare the content and bioavailability of phytochemicals in wheat, barley, rice, rye and oat varieties and critically evaluate the evidence for wholegrain cereals and cereal fractions increasing plasma phytochemical concentrations and reducing oxidative stress and inflammation in humans. Phytochemical content varies considerably within and among the major cereal varieties. Differences in genetics and agro-climatic conditions explain much of the variation. For a number of the major phytochemicals, such as phenolics and flavanoids, their content in grains may be high but because these compounds are tightly bound to the cell wall matrix, their bioavailability is often limited. Clinical trials show that postprandial plasma phenolic concentrations are increased after consumption of wholegrain wheat or wheat bran however the magnitude of the response is usually modest and transient. Whether this is sufficient to bolster antioxidant defences and translates into improved health outcomes is still uncertain. Increased phytochemical bioavailability may be achieved through bio-processing of grains but the improvements so far are small and have not yet led to changes in clinical or physiological markers associated with reduced risk of T2D. Furthermore, the effect of wholegrain cereals and cereal fractions on biomarkers of oxidative stress or strengthening antioxidant defence in healthy individuals is generally small or nonexistent, whereas biomarkers of systemic inflammation tend to be reduced in people consuming high intakes of wholegrains. Future dietary intervention studies seeking to establish a direct role of phytochemicals in mediating the metabolic health benefits of wholegrains, and their potential for mitigating disease progression, should consider using varieties that deliver the highest possible levels of bioavailable phytochemicals in the context of whole foods and diets. Both postprandial and prolonged responses in systemic phytochemical concentrations and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress should be assessed along with changes related to health outcomes in healthy individuals as well as those with metabolic disease.

Concepts: Nutrition, Antioxidant, Wheat, Cereal, Rice, Oat, Barley, Bran

5

Few studies have investigated the association between whole-grain intake and colorectal cancer. Because whole-grain intake estimation might be prone to measurement errors, more objective measures (eg, biomarkers) could assist in investigating such associations.

Concepts: Colorectal cancer, The Association, Bran