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Concept: Bragg diffraction

150

A series of new (E)-3(5)-[β-(aryl)-ethenyl]-5(3)-phenyl-1H-pyrazoles bearing fluorine atoms at different positions of the aryl group have been synthesized starting from the corresponding β-diketones. All compounds have been characterized by elemental analysis, DSC as well as NMR (¹H, (13)C, (19)F and (15)N) spectroscopy in solution and in solid state. Three structures have been solved by X-ray diffraction analysis, confirming the tautomeric forms detected by solid state NMR. The in vitro study of their inhibitory potency and selectivity on the activity of nNOS and eNOS (calcium-calmodulin dependent) as well as iNOS (calcium-calmodulin independent) isoenzymes is presented. A qualitative structure-activity analysis allowed the establishment of a correlation between the presence/ absence of different substituents with the inhibition data proving that fluorine groups enhance the biological activity. (E)-3(5)-[β-(3-Fluoro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-ethenyl]-5(3)-phenyl-1H-pyrazole (13), is the best inhibitor of iNOS, being also more selective towards the other two isoforms.

Concepts: DNA, Diffraction, X-ray, Chemical element, In vitro, X-ray crystallography, Bragg diffraction, Powder diffraction

136

A combined stress-vibration sensor was developed to measure stress and vibration simultaneously based on fiber Bragg grating (FBG) technology. The sensor is composed of two FBGs and a stainless steel plate with a special design. The two FBGs sense vibration and stress and the sensor can realize temperature compensation by itself. The stainless steel plate can significantly increase sensitivity of vibration measurement. Theoretical analysis and Finite Element Method (FEM) were used to analyze the sensor’s working mechanism. As demonstrated with analysis, the obtained sensor has working range of 0-6000 Hz for vibration sensing and 0-100 MPa for stress sensing, respectively. The corresponding sensitivity for vibration is 0.46 pm/g and the resulted stress sensitivity is 5.94 pm/MPa, while the nonlinearity error for vibration and stress measurement is 0.77% and 1.02%, respectively. Compared to general FBGs, the vibration sensitivity of this sensor is 26.2 times higher. Therefore, the developed sensor can be used to concurrently detect vibration and stress. As this sensor has height of 1 mm and weight of 1.15 g, it is beneficial for minimization and integration.

Concepts: Finite element method, Hilbert space, Bragg diffraction, Steel, Partial differential equation, Stainless steel, Bragg's law, Fiber Bragg grating

28

Among double perovskites, the interpretation of the magnetic, thermal and transport properties of Sr(2)YRuO(6) remains a challenge. Characterization using different techniques reveals a variety of features that are not understood, described as anomalous, and yields contradictory values for several relevant parameters. We solved this situation through detailed susceptibility, specific heat, thermal expansion and x-ray diffraction measurements, including a quantitative correlation of the parameters characterizing the so-called anomalies. The emergence of short-range magnetic correlations, surviving well above the long-range transition, naturally accounts for the observed unconventional behavior of this compound. High resolution x-ray powder diffraction and thermal expansion results conclusively show that the magnetic and thermal responses are driven by lattice changes, providing a comprehensive scenario in which the interplay between the spin and structural degrees of freedom plays a relevant role.

Concepts: Diffraction, Crystallography, Temperature, X-ray crystallography, Bragg diffraction, Powder diffraction, Neutron diffraction, X-ray scattering techniques

27

Three limonoids named thaixylomolins A-C (1-3), featuring two new motifs, were isolated from the seeds of a Thai mangrove, Xylocarpus moluccensis. The absolute configurations of these limonoids were determined by extensive NMR investigations, single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, and circular-dichroism spectroscopy in combination with quantum-chemical calculations. Thaixylomolin B exhibited inhibitory activity against nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide and IFN-γ-induced RAW264.7 murine macrophages with an IC50 value of 84.3 μM.

Concepts: Diffraction, X-ray, Crystallography, X-ray crystallography, Nitric oxide, Bragg diffraction, Powder diffraction, Mangrove

27

An all-fibre based Raman-on-chip setup is introduced which enables analysis of solutions and trapped particles without microscopes or objectives. Beside the novel quartz microfluidic chip, innovative multi-core single-mode fibres with integrated fibre Bragg gratings are used for detection. The limit of quantitation is 7.5 mM for urea and 2.5 mM for nicotine with linear Raman spectroscopy. This is an improvement of more than two orders of magnitude compared with previous fibre-based microfluidic Raman detection schemes. Furthermore, our device was combined with optical traps to collect Raman-on-chip spectra of spherical polymer beads.

Concepts: Spectroscopy, Optical fiber, Laser, Raman spectroscopy, Bragg diffraction, Bragg's law, Fiber Bragg grating, Distributed Bragg reflector

24

Grisemycin (1), the first sulfur angucyclinone with an unusual ether-bridged system, was isolated from a marine-derived Streptomyces griseus strain M268. Its novel, here cage-like, structure was determined by spectroscopic analysis and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 exhibited modestly selective activity against the HL-60 cell line with an IC50 value of 31.54 μM. Futhermore, the absolute stereochemistry of kiamycin (2), an 1,12-epoxybenz[a]anthracene, previously obtained from the same strain, was established by X-ray diffraction analysis.

Concepts: DNA, Diffraction, X-ray, Electromagnetic radiation, X-ray crystallography, Bragg diffraction, Streptomyces, Streptomyces griseus

3

Anisotropic lattice movements due to the difference between intralayer and interlayer bonding are observed in the layered transition-metal dichalcogenide 1T-TaSeTe following femtosecond laser pulse excitation. Our ultrafast electron diffraction investigations using 4D-transmission electron microscopy (4D-TEM) clearly reveal that the intensity of Bragg reflection spots often changes remarkably due to the dynamic diffraction effects and anisotropic lattice movement. Importantly, the temporal diffracted intensity from a specific crystallographic plane depends on the deviation parameter s, which is commonly used in the theoretical study of diffraction intensity. Herein, we report on lattice thermalization and structural oscillations in layered 1T-TaSeTe, analyzed by dynamic diffraction theory. Ultrafast alterations of satellite spots arising from the charge density wave in the present system are also briefly discussed.

Concepts: Electron, Diffraction, X-ray, Optics, Fundamental physics concepts, Laser, Bragg diffraction, Neutron diffraction

3

Coherent X-ray microscopy by phase retrieval of Bragg diffraction intensities enables lattice distortions within a crystal to be imaged at nanometre-scale spatial resolutions in three dimensions. While this capability can be used to resolve structure-property relationships at the nanoscale under working conditions, strict data measurement requirements can limit the application of current approaches. Here, we introduce an efficient method of imaging three-dimensional (3D) nanoscale lattice behaviour and strain fields in crystalline materials with a methodology that we call 3D Bragg projection ptychography (3DBPP). This method enables 3D image reconstruction of a crystal volume from a series of two-dimensional X-ray Bragg coherent intensity diffraction patterns measured at a single incident beam angle. Structural information about the sample is encoded along two reciprocal-space directions normal to the Bragg diffracted exit beam, and along the third dimension in real space by the scanning beam. We present our approach with an analytical derivation, a numerical demonstration, and an experimental reconstruction of lattice distortions in a component of a nanoelectronic prototype device.

Concepts: Diffraction, X-ray, Optics, Dimension, Vector space, Space, Real number, Bragg diffraction

2

X-ray diffraction has the potential to provide rich information about the structural dynamics of macromolecules. To realize this potential, both Bragg scattering, which is currently used to derive macromolecular structures, and diffuse scattering, which reports on correlations in charge density variations, must be measured. Until now, measurement of diffuse scattering from protein crystals has been scarce because of the extra effort of collecting diffuse data. Here, we present 3D measurements of diffuse intensity collected from crystals of the enzymes cyclophilin A and trypsin. The measurements were obtained from the same X-ray diffraction images as the Bragg data, using best practices for standard data collection. To model the underlying dynamics in a practical way that could be used during structure refinement, we tested translation-libration-screw (TLS), liquid-like motions (LLM), and coarse-grained normal-modes (NM) models of protein motions. The LLM model provides a global picture of motions and was refined against the diffuse data, whereas the TLS and NM models provide more detailed and distinct descriptions of atom displacements, and only used information from the Bragg data. Whereas different TLS groupings yielded similar Bragg intensities, they yielded different diffuse intensities, none of which agreed well with the data. In contrast, both the LLM and NM models agreed substantially with the diffuse data. These results demonstrate a realistic path to increase the number of diffuse datasets available to the wider biosciences community and indicate that dynamics-inspired NM structural models can simultaneously agree with both Bragg and diffuse scattering.

Concepts: DNA, Diffraction, X-ray, Crystallography, Measurement, X-ray crystallography, Bragg diffraction, Powder diffraction

2

A dichloromethane extract of the soft coral Rhytisma fulvum fulvum collected in Madagascar afforded a novel compound possessing an unprecedented pentacyclic skeleton, bisdioxycalamenene (1), as well as seven known sesquiterpenes. The structures of the compounds were elucidated using 1D and 2D NMR techniques, as well as high-resolution mass spectrometry. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined using X-ray diffraction analysis and anomalous dispersion effects. The structure elucidation and a possible biogenesis of the compound are discussed.

Concepts: Diffraction, X-ray, Crystallography, Mass spectrometry, X-ray crystallography, Chemical structure, Bragg diffraction, Powder diffraction