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Concept: Brachiocephalic vein

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The purpose of this study was to elaborate on the anastomoses between the paraumbilical and systemic veins, particularly the ensiform veins. The connections with the ensiform veins have received little attention in the anatomical and radiological literature, and remain incompletely described. Too small to be reliably traced in normal CT scans, the paraumbilical veins can dilate in response to increased blood flow from systemic veins in superior vena cava obstruction (SVCO), allowing a study of their arrangement and connections. Collateral paraumbilical veins were therefore analyzed retrospectively in 28 patients with SVCO using CT. We observed inferior and superior groups of collateral vessels in 23/28 (82%) and 17/28 (61%) patients, respectively. Inferior veins ascended towards the liver and drained into portal veins (19/28, 68%) or the umbilical vein (8/28, 29%); superior veins descended and drained into portal veins. The inferior veins (N = 27) could be traced to ensiform veins in almost all of the cases (26/27, 96%), and a little over half (14/27, 52%) were also traceable to subcutaneous and deep epigastric veins. They were opacified by ensiform (25/27, 93%), deep epigastric (4/27, 15%) and subcutaneous (4/27, 15%) veins. The superior veins (N = 17) were supplied by diaphragmatic (13/17, 76%) and ensiform veins (4/17, 24%); the diaphragmatic veins were branches of collateral internal thoracic, left pericardiacophrenic and anterior mediastinal veins. Collateral ensiform veins were observed in 22 patients and anastomosed with internal thoracic (19/22, 86%), superior epigastric (9/22, 41%), diaphragmatic (4/22, 18%), subcutaneous (3/22, 14%) and anterior mediastinal veins (1/22, 5%). These observations show that the paraumbilical veins communicate with ensiform, deep epigastric, subcutaneous and diaphragmatic veins, joining the liver to the properitoneal fat pad, anterior trunk, diaphragm and mediastinum. In SVCO, the most common sources of collateral flow to the paraumbilical veins are the ensiform and diaphragmatic branches of the internal thoracic veins.

Concepts: Brachiocephalic artery, Umbilical vein, Inferior vena cava, Heart, Brachiocephalic vein, Vein, Liver, Superior vena cava

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BACKGROUND A peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) causes few serious complications but can be malpositioned. To avoid malpositioning, ultrasound guidance is widely used. Here, we report the case of a patient who received a PICC that was inserted under ultrasound guidance, but the catheter tip accidentally entered the right inferior thyroid vein. CASE REPORT A 58-year-old woman was scheduled for reconstructive mammoplasty. After general anesthesia, a PICC was inserted via the right basilic vein. The PICC was inserted under guidance using a portable ultrasound machine with a high-frequency linear transducer. The tip of the guide wire and catheter were confirmed by ultrasound to be in the right subclavian vein, not in the right internal jugular vein, during insertion. However, the chest X-ray performed after the PICC insertion showed that the catheter had moved into the right inferior thyroid vein. CONCLUSIONS Malpositioning of a PICC can occur into any small vein. Ultrasound should be used not only to avoid malpositioning into the IJV, but also to confirm the proper position of the catheter tip during PICC insertion.

Concepts: Jugular vein, Subclavian artery, Veins of the head and neck, Axillary vein, Subclavian vein, Central venous catheter, Internal jugular vein, Brachiocephalic vein

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Although many studies have compared success and complication rates for central line insertion sites with and without ultrasound, few have examined the use of the brachiocephalic vein for central venous access. The aim of this study was to describe the brachiocephalic vein as an alternative site for elective ultrasound vascular cannulation in adults, and to compare it with the more commonly used internal jugular vein site in terms of procedural difficulties, first pass failure rate, overall failure rate, and safety.

Concepts: Veins of the head and neck, Superior vena cava, Common facial vein, Jugular vein, Central venous catheter, Brachiocephalic vein, Subclavian vein, Internal jugular vein

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Two cases of a high-riding innominate artery, which were found during routine surgical tracheostomy. A cartilage flap was applied to cover the significant vessel to prevent the life-threatening complications. These two cases were followed up for 2 months without any adverse events. We discussed the related vascular anatomy, imaging studies and brief literature review.

Concepts: Subclavian artery, Blood vessel, Medicine, Artery, Common carotid artery, Innominate, Brachiocephalic vein, Brachiocephalic artery

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Two cases of anatomical variations of the thymus are presented with respect to the anatomical relations with the left brachiocephalic vein and found during the necropsy process. Less than 2 days after birth with Noonan Syndrome, when the left brachiocephalic vein was scanning behind the upper thymus horns, there were other adjacent lesions consisting of three supernumerary spleens and three hepatic veins. The second case was an 8-year-old infant with child malpractice who died from urinary sepsis due to obstructive uropathy, in which case the upper lobes of the thymus were fused and formed a ring through which the left brachiocephalic vein passed.

Concepts: Brachiocephalic artery, Brachiocephalic vein, Superior vena cava

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We present the case of a 71-year-old man who presented to the ear, nose and throat department with complete nasal obstruction and facial plethora on bending forward. Clinical examination was positive for Pemberton’s sign. Computed tomography and ultrasonography demonstrated bilateral brachiocephalic vein thrombosis secondary to pacemaker insertion. This case highlights a novel complication of pacemaker insertion.

Concepts: Brachiocephalic vein, Respiratory system, Superior vena cava, Medical imaging, Nasal cavity, Nose

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Central venous thromboses are common and pose challenges in the care of chronically ill pediatric patients. Among patients with intestinal failure (most commonly because of short bowel syndrome) who depend on parenteral nutrition, progressive loss of central venous access sites is a potentially fatal complication. We present the case of a 5-year-old girl with parenteral nutrition-dependent short bowel syndrome and no remaining standard central venous access sites despite medical anticoagulation, in whom angioplasty and stent implantations were used to reconstruct chronically occluded central veins. The patient presented with a bloodstream infection necessitating tunneled central venous line removal from the left internal jugular vein. All other standard access sites had known occlusions. The right iliofemoral vein (RIFV) and infrarenal inferior vena cava were recanalized and dilated with high-pressure balloons. The left internal jugular line was removed and a line was placed in the now-patent RIFV for antimicrobial therapy. After treatment, the RIFV line was removed and the vessels were stented open for future access. The occluded left innominate vein was recanalized and dilated to allow a new tunneled line to be placed. At 10 months, the line was functional and uninfected and the RIFV and inferior vena cava stents were patent without in-stent restenosis. We propose a new paradigm that uses these techniques to prevent access site exhaustion in patients who do not respond to anticoagulation therapy. This approach may reduce morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic access needs and the need for intestinal transplantation in patients with intestinal failure.

Concepts: Vein, Central venous catheter, Brachiocephalic vein, Deep vein thrombosis, Subclavian vein, Superior vena cava, Inferior vena cava, Internal jugular vein

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An 81-year-old woman with a 2-year history of dysphagia detected a cervical mass. Computed tomography showed a thyroid tumor extending through the superior and anterior mediastinum. Incisional biopsy revealed a thymoma. Total resection of the thyroid and mediastinal tumor was performed. The thymoma invaded the anterior tracheal wall and left brachiocephalic vein. Pathological examination revealed thymoma type B1 concomitant with B2 and B3 (World Health Organization classification), Masaoka IVb and T3N2M0-IVb, with cervical lymph node metastasis. Clinicians must be cautious during radical surgery for invasive ectopic thymomas.

Concepts: Vertebral vein, Lymph node, Mediastinum, Brachiocephalic vein, Mediastinal tumor, Superior vena cava, Subclavian vein, Cancer

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Central venous catheterization-induced central vein pseudoaneurysm is rare. Several treatment options have been recommended. We describe a case of central venous catheterization-induced right brachiocephalic vein pseudoaneurysm successfully treated with an uncovered self-expandable stent-assisted coil embolization and discuss the imaging findings, treatment strategy, and review of literature associated with thoracic venous pseudoaneurysm.

Concepts: Brachiocephalic artery, Brachiocephalic vein, Superior vena cava

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The purpose of the present study was to examine a new protocol involving the spontaneous correction of the misplaced tip of a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC). Patients with PICCs misplaced in the jugular or contralateral subclavian veins were recruited. All patients underwent chest X-ray (CXR) after 3 days. In addition, those whose PICC tip still was misplaced and received another CXR after 4 days. The functions of the catheters, the subjective feelings of the patients, and local symptoms of the neck and upper anterior chest wall were recorded. Among 866 patients who had PICCs, we observed 22 PICC tips misplaced in the jugular, 3 tips misplaced in the contralateral subclavian vein, and 7 tips misplaced in other locations, which was confirmed by CXR. A total of 22 PICC tips automatically returned to the superior vena cava, which included all 3 tips in the contralateral subclavian vein and 19 tips in the jugular vein. All catheters functioned normally, and the patients had no complaints. In addition, we observed no local symptoms of the neck and upper anterior chest wall. For patients experiencing a PICC misplaced in the jugular and contralateral subclavian veins, there is no need to manually replace. In addition, the function of the catheter can remain normal.

Concepts: Subclavian artery, Vein, Subclavian vein, Superior vena cava, Brachiocephalic vein, Inferior vena cava, Internal jugular vein, Central venous catheter