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Concept: Bottle


The impact of wine pH and closure type on colour, tannin concentration and composition was investigated. A single vintage of Cabernet Sauvignon wine was divided into three batches, the pH adjusted to 3.2, 3.5 or 3.8, the wines bottled under screw caps with either SaranTin™ (ST) or Saranex™ (Sx) liners. After 24 months, the tannin concentration, tannin % yield (relating to the proportion of acid-labile interflavan bonds) and the mean degree of polymerization (mDp) had decreased significantly, all of which can contribute to the softening in wine astringency with aging. The higher pH wines contained less % (-)-epicatechin 3-O-gallate subunits, while the Sx pH 3.2 wines were significantly lower in % yield and mDp than the other wines. Overall, the tannin structure and wine colour of the lower pH wines (pH 3.2) bottled under Sx screw caps changed more rapidly with aging than those of the higher pH wines (pH 3.8) bottled under ST screw caps.

Concepts: Polyphenol, Chilean wine, Tannin, Merlot, Bottle, Oenology, Wine, Cabernet Sauvignon


The consumption of bottled water in Italy began in the 1970s. Since then, this usage has grown considerably, also as a result of changes in habits. The environmental impact as a result of the water production chain is very significant; it would be considered, for example, the use of plastic bottles, the consumption of oil in the production of the bottles, the emission of air from the vehicles that transport the bottles, non-recycled plastic packaging, etc. In this study, considering the comparison between two situations, use of bottled water and use of water kiosk (WK), an environmental and economic impact evaluation has been done. The study considered the production of a WK in a town with 9000 inhabitants, which supplies controlled, still and sparkling water, with an organoleptic quality higher than tap water coming from the aqueduct. In particular, taking into consideration the environmental aspects, specific attention was paid both to CO2 emissions and PET bottle waste reduction. The economic impact evaluation was carried out from the consumer’s point of view. In order to provide a supply service that was economically sustainable, a calculation was done with the aim of determining a specific fee for the supplied water. Moreover, a comparison has been made between quality parameters achieved with the analysis of water from aqueducts with the limits established in the Italian legislation and the parameters of several Italian water brands. The study has the aim at considering the opportunity to follow a different people’s habits, closer to the concept of sustainability, reducing the environmental charge related to the realization, transport and consumption of plastic water bottles without significant reduction of the quality of the service and with convenient and interesting economic implications. In fact the results of the study show that the alternative of WKs is more efficient in economic and environmental terms respect to the use of bottled water.

Concepts: Plastic bottle, Recycling, Bottles, Recyclable materials, Bottled water, Aqueduct, Carbon dioxide, Bottle


The use of nasal irrigation in the management of postoperative endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) patients is commonplace; however, the potential contamination of these bottles is concerning. The Sinugator® cordless pulsating nasal wash (NeilMed Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Santa Rosa, CA) is a battery-operated, positive pressure, pulsatile pump with a unidirectional flow. The principal aim of this study was to determine the incidence of cross-contamination using the pulsating nasal irrigation device and compare it with the traditional squeeze bottle.

Concepts: Bottles, Bottle, Hygiene, Rhinology, Medicine, Mucus, Nasal cavity, Nasal irrigation


Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical used in plastic bottles and inner coating of beverage cans, and its exposure is almost ubiquitous. BPA has been associated with hypertension and decreased heart rate variability in the previous studies. The aim of the present study was to determine whether increased BPA exposure from consumption of canned beverage actually affects blood pressure and heart rate variability. We conducted a randomized crossover trial with noninstitutionalized adults, who were aged ≥60 years and recruited from a local community center. A total of 60 participants visited the study site 3 times, and they were provided the same beverage in 2 glass bottles, 2 cans, or 1 can and 1 glass bottle at a time. The sequence of the beverage was randomized. We then measured urinary BPA concentration, blood pressure, and heart rate variability 2 hours after the consumption of each beverage. The paired t test and mixed model were used to compare the differences. The urinary BPA concentration increased after consuming canned beverages by >1600% compared with that after consuming glass bottled beverages. Systolic blood pressure adjusted for daily variance increased by ≈4.5 mm Hg after consuming 2 canned beverages compared with that after consuming 2 glass bottled beverages, and the difference was statistically significant. The parameters of the heart rate variability did not show statistically significant differences.The present study demonstrated that consuming canned beverage and consequent increase of BPA exposure increase blood pressure acutely.

Concepts: Time, Artery, Glass bottle, Blood, Bisphenol A, Recyclable materials, Blood pressure, Bottle


Microplastics are anthropogenic contaminants which have been found in oceans, lakes and rivers. Investigations focusing on drinking water are rare and studies have mainly been using micro-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (μ-FT-IR). A major limitation of this technique is its inability to detect particles smaller than 20 μm. However, micro-Raman spectroscopy is capable of detecting even smaller particle sizes. Therefore, we show that this technique, which was used in this study, is particularly useful in detecting microplastics in drinking water where particle sizes are in the low micrometer range. In our study, we compared the results from drinking water distributed in plastic bottles, glass bottles and beverage cartons. We tested the microplastic content of water from 22 different returnable and single-use plastic bottles, 3 beverage cartons and 9 glass bottles obtained from grocery stores in Germany. Small (-50-500 μm) and very small (1-50 μm) microplastic fragments were found in every type of water. Interestingly, almost 80% of all microplastic particles found had a particle size between 5 and 20 μm and were therefore not detectable by the analytical techniques used in previous studies. The average microplastics content was 118 ± 88 particles/l in returnable, but only 14 ± 14 particles/l in single-use plastic bottles. The microplastics content in the beverage cartons was only 11 ± 8 particles/l. Contrary to our assumptions we found high amounts of plastic particles in some of the glass bottled waters (range 0-253 particles/l, mean 50 ± 52 particles/l). A statistically significant difference from the blank value (14 ± 13) to the investigated packaging types could only be shown comparing to the returnable bottles (p < 0.05). Most of the particles in water from returnable plastic bottles were identified as consisting of polyester (primary polyethylene terephthalate PET, 84%) and polypropylene (PP; 7%). This is not surprising since the bottles are made of PET and the caps are made of PP. In water from single-use plastic bottles only a few micro-PET-particles have been found. In the water from beverage cartons and also from glass bottles, microplastic particles other than PET were found, for example polyethylene or polyolefins. This can be explained by the fact that beverage cartons are coated with polyethylene foils and caps are treated with lubricants. Therefore, these findings indicate that the packaging itself may release microparticles. The main fraction of the microplastic particles identified are of very small size with dimensions less than 20 μm, which is not detectable with the μ-FT-IR technique used in previous studies.

Concepts: Statistical significance, Polyethylene terephthalate, Polypropylene, Spectroscopy, Bottled water, Water, Bottle, Recyclable materials


 Preliterate children may be poisoned because they fail to distinguish safe versus hazardous household products.  METHODS:  Study 1: A total of 228 children aged 18-54 months completed four tasks assessing ability to recognize product safety. Study 2: A total of 68 children aged 17-31 months chose products to drink from pairs of dangerous versus beverage bottles. Study 3: A total of 119 children aged 18-42 months sorted 12 objects into toys, things you can drink, and things that are bad/dangerous.  RESULTS:  Left alone, children frequently touched dangerous household products. Children frequently misidentified poisonous products as safe. Some developmental trends emerged. The following packaging features apparently helped children recognize danger: black bottle color; opaque packaging; salient symbols like insects; lack of pointy spouts; squared, not round, bottles; and metal, not plastic, containers.  CONCLUSIONS:  Developing cognition helps preliterate children distinguish safe from dangerous household products. Multiple aspects of product packaging may reduce child poisoning risk if implemented by industry or policy.

Concepts: Bottle, Child, Childhood, Containers, Packaging, Poison, Human development, Developmental psychology


Formula-fed infants may be at greater risk for overfeeding and rapid weight gain. Different size bottles are used for feeding infants, although little is known about whether bottle size is related to weight gain in bottle-fed infants.

Concepts: Bottles, Weight gain, Bottle


To assess whether adding flow restrictors (FRs) to liquid medicine bottles can provide additional protection against unsupervised medication ingestions by young children, even when the child-resistant closure is not fully secured.

Concepts: Fluid dynamics, Bottle, Prescription drug, Pharmacology, Pharmaceutical drug, Medicine


A cross-sectional examination of the accuracy of volume markers on infant feeding bottles available for sale in Australia between December 2013 and February 2014 was carried out. Ninety-one bottles representing 28 different brands were examined. Eighty-eight bottles were hard sided. Volumes in these bottles were marked in a combination of milliliters and ounces. Thirty-six (41%) bottles claimed compliance with the European standard EN14350, five (6%) with non-existent Australian standards, and forty-seven (54%) bottles had no standard claim. Nineteen bottles (22%) had at least one measured marking outside the tolerance of EN14350. Bottles claiming compliance with EN14350 were not less likely to have inaccurate markings than those that made no claim. More expensive bottles did not have fewer inaccurate markings. Three bottles were disposable liner systems and had particularly large volume inaccuracies (up to 43% outside the marked volume). Inaccurate volume markers on infant feeding bottles are a previously neglected but potentially important source of error in the reconstitution of infant formula. Over-concentrated and under-concentrated infant formula can cause serious illness or malnutrition. Over-concentrated infant formula may contribute to obesity. Bottles with inaccurate volume markers are unfit for purpose; disposable liner bottles are particularly poor in this regard and should be prohibited from having volume markers on the bottle casing. To avoid individual or public harms, well-enforced standards are needed. Guidance for parents, carers, and health professionals is needed to ensure that infant formula is accurately reconstituted.

Concepts: Standard, Marking, Bottle, Marker, Formula, Mark, Nutrition, Volume


Bottled water is packaged in either glass or, to a large extent, in plastic bottles with metallic or plastic caps of different material, shape and colour. Plastic materials are made of one or more monomers and several additives that can eventually migrate into water, either during bottle manufacturing, water filling or storage. The main objective of the present study was to carry out a comprehensive assessment of the quality of the Spanish bottled water market in terms of (i) migration of plastic components or additives during bottling and during storage and (ii) evaluation of the effect of the packaging material and bottle format on the migration potential. The compounds investigated were 5 phthalates, diethylhexyl adipate, alkylphenols and bisphenol A. A set of 362 bottled water samples corresponding to 131 natural mineral waters and spring waters sources and 3 treated waters of several commercial brands were analysed immediately after bottling and after one-year storage (a total of 724 samples). Target compounds were detected in 5.6% of the data values, with diethyl hexyl phthalate and bisphenol A being the most ubiquitous compounds detected. The total daily intake was estimated and a comparison with reference values was indicated.

Concepts: Packaging, Water, Mineral, Bottles, Glass, Bottled water, Plastic, Bottle