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Concept: Botanical nomenclature


A new oviraptorid dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous of Ganzhou, bringing oviraptrotid diversity of this region to seven taxa, is described. It is characterized by a distinct cassowary-like crest on the skull, no pleurocoels on the centra from the second through fourth cervical vertebrae, a neck twice as long as the dorsal vertebral column and slightly longer than the forelimb (including the manus). Phylogenetic analysis recovers the new oviraptorid taxon, Corythoraptor jacobsi, as closely related to Huanansaurus from Ganzhou. Osteochronology suggests that the type specimen of Corythoraptor had not reached stationary growth stage but died while decreasing growth rates. The histology implies that it would correspond to an immature individual approximately eight years old. We hypothesize, based on the inner structure compared to that in modern cassowaries, that the prominent casque of Corythoraptor was a multifunction-structure utilized in display, communication and probably expression of the fitness during mating seasons.

Concepts: Biology, Vertebral column, Skull, Vertebra, Cervical vertebrae, Dinosaur, Botanical nomenclature


During our study of biodiversity of Rotifera in PR China, as model taxon of freshwater Micrometazoa, we came across several records that warrant revision regarding species of genus Mytilina Bory de St. Vincent, 1826 (Rotifera, Monogonta, Mytilinidae). In addition to this review we describe a new species encountered during examination of freshwater habitats of Inner Mongolia, P.R.China. This new species, Mytilina wangi n. sp., appears to belong to the Mytilina mucronata - ventralis complex but differs from the known taxa in the group by its domed lorica and relatively short toes. We provide an annotated checklist of the Chinese representatives of the genus and discuss the species of the M. mucronata-ventralis group. We suggest treating M. brevispina (Ehrenberg, 1830) and M. ventralis (Ehrenberg, 1830)(synonym: M. macracantha (Gosse, 1886)) as separate species-level taxa rather than as two infrasubspecific variants of the same species, and argue that Mytilina trigona var. bispinosa Wang, 1961 is a misidentified M. acanthophora Hauer, 1938 rather than an infrasubspecific variant of M. trigona (Gosse, 1851). 

Concepts: Species, China, People's Republic of China, Inner Mongolia, International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, Botanical nomenclature, Mongolia, Hui people


An updated list of Issidae known from Vietnam is provided. Two new species, one from the genus Darwallia Gnezdilov, 2010, and another one from a new genus are described from the Hòn Bà massif in Central Vietnam. A key to species of the genus Darwallia is provided. Gelastyrella hainanensis Ran et Liang, 2006 is placed in synonymy under Thabena litaoensis Yang, 1994. This last taxon and the genus Gergithoides Schumacher, 1915 are recorded for the first time for Vietnamese fauna. New records in Vietnam are given for Tetrica philo Fennah, 1978 and Gergithus iguchii Matsumura, 1916. 

Concepts: Class, Scientific classification, International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, Zoological nomenclature, Botanical nomenclature, Chresonym, March 10, March 14


The genus Pseudaethria Schaus is revised and redescribed based on morphological characters of male and female adults. Its type species, Pseudaethria cessogae Schaus, was found out to be a junior subjective synonym of Heliura cosmosomodes Dognin. Therefore, the new combination Pseudaethria cosmosomodes is proposed along with another one: Pseudaethria analis Gaede new combination. A lectotype is designated to P. cessogae, which was described from an undetermined number of specimens. The distribution of the species is discussed as well as its systematic placement.

Concepts: Human, Male, Biology, Order, Zoological nomenclature, Botanical nomenclature, Systematics, Name-bearing type


The history of usage of the name Cetonia floricola fausti Kraatz, 1891 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae) is discussed. In recent publications, the name Protaetia (Potosia) fausti was applied to a taxon that is not conspecific with Kraatz’s holotype. We therefore reassign the name Cetonia fausti Kraatz, 1891 as a junior synonym of Protaetia splendidula (Faldermann, 1835) and discuss the justification for this synonymy. The taxon that was erroneously called Protaetia fausti in recent papers actually includes two distinct species: Protaetia jelineki (Petrovitz, 1981) and a species described in this paper as Protaetia (Potosia) haiastanica new species from northwestern and central Armenia and southwestern Georgia.

Concepts: Zoological nomenclature, Botanical nomenclature, Scarabaeidae, Chresonym, Nomen oblitum


Melanorosaurus is a genus of basal sauropodomorph that currently includes two species from Southern Africa. In this paper, we redescribe the holotype femur of Melanorosaurus thabanensis from the Elliot Formation of Lesotho, as well as associated remains. The stratigraphic position of this taxon is reviewed, and it is clear that it comes from the Lower Elliot Formation being, therefore, Late Triassic in age, and not Early Jurassic as originally described. The knowledge of the anatomy of the basal sauropodomorph of Thabana Morena is enhanced by the description of six new skeletal elements from the type locality. The femur and the ilium from Thabana Morena are diagnostic and characterized by unusual proportions. The first phylogenetic analysis including both this specimen and Melanorosaurus is conducted. This analysis leads to the conclusion that the femur described in the original publication of Melanorosaurus thabanensis can no longer be referred to Melanorosaurus. For these reasons, we hereby create Meroktenos gen. nov. to encompass Meroktenos thabanensis comb. nov.

Concepts: Biology, Species, Genus, Dinosaur, Botanical nomenclature, Triassic, Jurassic, Late Triassic


The rebbachisaurid sauropod Tataouinea hannibalis represents the first articulated dinosaur skeleton from Tunisia and one of the best preserved in northern Africa. The type specimen was collected from the lower Albian, fluvio-estuarine deposits of the Ain el Guettar Formation (southern Tunisia). We present detailed analyses on the sedimentology and facies distribution at the main quarry and a revision of the vertebrate fauna associated with the skeleton. Data provide information on a complex ecosystem dominated by crocodilian and other brackish water taxa. Taphonomic interpretations indicate a multi-event, pre-burial history with a combination of rapid segregation in high sediment supply conditions and partial subaerial exposure of the carcass. After the collection in 2011 of the articulated sacrum and proximalmost caudal vertebrae, all showing a complex pattern of pneumatization, newly discovered material of the type specimen allows a detailed osteological description of Tataouinea. The sacrum, the complete and articulated caudal vertebrae 1-17, both ilia and ischia display asymmetrical pneumatization, with the left side of vertebrae and the left ischium showing a more extensive invasion by pneumatic features than their right counterparts. A pneumatic hiatus is present in caudal centra 7 to 13, whereas caudal centra 14-16 are pneumatised by shallow fossae. Bayesian inference analyses integrating morphological, stratigraphic and paleogeographic data support a flagellicaudatan-rebbachisaurid divergence at about 163 Ma and a South American ancestral range for rebbachisaurids. Results presented here suggest an exclusively South American Limaysaurinae and a more widely distributed Rebbachisaurinae lineage, the latter including the South American taxon Katepensaurus and a clade including African and European taxa, with Tataouinea as sister taxon of Rebbachisaurus. This scenario would indicate that South America was not affected by the end-Jurassic extinction of diplodocoids, and was most likely the centre of the rapid radiation of rebbachisaurids to Africa and Europe between 135 and 130 Ma.

Concepts: Africa, Phylogenetic nomenclature, Cladistics, South America, Cretaceous, Dinosaur, Botanical nomenclature, Taxon


Dasypus is the most speciose genus of the order Cingulata, including approximately 40% of known living armadillos. Nine species are currently recognized, although comprehensive analyses of the entire genus have never been done. Our aim is to revise the taxonomy of the long-nosed armadillos and properly define the taxa. We examined 2126 specimens of Dasypus preserved in 39 different museum collections, including 17 type specimens. Three complementary methods were applied to explore morphological datasets both qualitatively and quantitatively. Qualitative morphological variation in discrete characters was assessed by direct observations of specimens. Linear morphometric variation was based on external data and cranial measurements of 887 adult skulls. The shape and size of the skull was abstracted through two-dimensional geometric morphometric analyses of dorsal, lateral and ventral views of respectively 421, 211, and 220 adult specimens. Our results converge on the recognition of eight living species (D. beniensis, D. kappleri, D. mazzai, D. novemcinctus, D. pastasae, D. pilosus, D. sabanicola, and D. septemcinctus), and three subspecies of D. septemcinctus (D. s. septemcinctus, D. s. hybridus, and a new subspecies from Cordoba described here). Information on type material, diagnosis, distribution, and taxonomic comments for each taxon are provided. We designate a lectotype for D. novemcinctus; and a neotype for Loricatus hybridus (= D. septemcinctus hybridus).

Concepts: Species, Skull, International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, Zoological nomenclature, Botanical nomenclature, Armadillo, Dasypus, Southern Long-nosed Armadillo


Two strains of aerobic, non-motile, Gram-positive cocci were independently isolated from geographically distinct spacecraft assembly clean room facilities (Kennedy Space Center, Florida, USA and Centre Spatial Guyanais, Kourou, French Guiana). A polyphasic study was carried out to delineate the taxonomic identity of these two isolates (1PO5MAT and KO_PS43). The 16S rRNA gene sequences exhibited a high similarity when compared to each other (100%) and lower than 96.7 % relatedness with Arthrobacter crystallopoietes ATCC 15481T, Arthrobacter luteolus ATCC BAA-272T, Arthrobacter tumbae DSM 16406T and Arthrobacter subterraneus DSM 17585T. In contrast to previously described Arthrobacter species, the novel isolates maintained their coccidal morphology throughout their growth and did not exhibit the rod-coccus life cycle typically observed in nearly all Arthrobacter species, except A. agilis. The distinct taxonomic identity of the novel isolates was confirmed based on their unique cell-wall peptidoglycan type (A.11.20; Lys-Ser-Ala2) and polar lipid profile (presence of phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, an unkown phospholipid and two unknown glycolipids). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 70.6 mol%. The novel strains revealed MK-9(H2) and MK-8(H2) as dominant menaquinones and exhibited fatty acid profiles consisting of major amounts of anteiso-C15:0 and anteiso-C17:0 and moderate amounts of iso-C15:0 discriminating them again from closely related Arthrobacter species. Based on these observations, the authors propose that strains 1PO5MAT and KO_PS43 be assigned into a separate genus Tersicoccus gen. nov. For this new taxon, comprising strains 1PO5MAT and KO_PS43, we propose the name Tersicoccus phoenicis gen. nov., sp. nov. (the type species of Tersicoccus), represented by the type strain Tersicoccus phoenicis 1PO5MAT (=NRRL B-59547T= DSM 30849T).

Concepts: Bacteria, Biology, Ribosomal RNA, 16S ribosomal RNA, Zoological nomenclature, Botanical nomenclature, French Guiana, Kennedy Space Center


Eolambia caroljonesa is the most abundant dinosaur in the lower Cenomanian Mussentuchit Member of the Cedar Mountain Formation of Utah, and one of the most completely known non-hadrosaurid iguanodontians from North America. In addition to the large holotype and paratype partial skulls, copious remains of skeletally immature individuals, including three bonebeds, have been referred to E. caroljonesa. Nevertheless, aspects of the postcranial anatomy of this taxon, particularly the pelvic girdle, have remained ambiguous due to the lack of associated postcranial material of larger, more mature individuals.

Concepts: Biology, United States, Fossil, Paleontology, Dinosaur, Botanical nomenclature, Utahraptor, Cenomanian