Concept: Borderline personality disorder
Spiteful, antisocial behavior may undermine the moral and institutional fabric of society, producing disorder, fear, and mistrust. Previous research demonstrates the willingness of individuals to harm others, but little is understood about how far people are willing to go in being spiteful (relative to how far they could have gone) or their consistency in spitefulness across repeated trials. Our experiment is the first to provide individuals with repeated opportunities to spitefully harm anonymous others when the decision entails zero cost to the spiter and cannot be observed as such by the object of spite. This method reveals that the majority of individuals exhibit consistent (non-)spitefulness over time and that the distribution of spitefulness is bipolar: when choosing whether to be spiteful, most individuals either avoid spite altogether or impose the maximum possible harm on their unwitting victims.
One of the core symptoms of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is the instability in interpersonal relationships. This might be related to existent differences in mindreading between BPD patients and healthy individuals.
BACKGROUND: Negative affect and difficulties in its regulation have been connected to several adverse psychological consequences. While several questionnaires exist, it would be important to have a theory-based measure that includes clinically relevant items and shows good psychometric properties in healthy and patient samples. This study aims at developing such a questionnaire, combining the two Gross  scales Reappraisal and Suppression with an additional response-focused scale called Externalizing Behavioral Strategies covering clinically relevant items. METHODS: The samples consisted of 684 students (mean age = 23.3, SD = 3.5; 53.6% female) and 369 persons with mixed mental disorders (mean age = 36.0 SD = 14.6; 71.2% female). Items for the questionnaire were derived from existing questionnaires and additional items were formulated based on suggestions by clinical experts. All items start with “When I don’t feel well, in order to feel better…”. Participants rated how frequently they used each strategy on a 5-point Likert scale. Confirmatory Factor Analyses were conducted to verify the factor structure in two separate student samples and a clinical sample. Group comparisons and correlations with other questionnaires were calculated to ensure validity. RESULTS: After modification, the CFA showed good model fit in all three samples. Reliability scores (Cronbach’s alpha) for the three NARQ scales ranged between .71 and .80. Comparisons between students and persons with mental disorders showed the postulated relationships, as did comparisons between male and female students and persons with or without Borderline Personality Disorder. Correlations with other questionnaires suggest the NARQ’s construct validity. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that the NARQ is a psychometrically sound and reliable measure with practical use for therapy planning and tracking of treatment outcome across time. We advocate the integration of the new response-focused strategy in the Gross’s model of emotion regulation.
CONTEXT Evidence for symptomatic convergence of schizophrenia and N -methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor (NMDA-R) encephalitis highlights the need for an assessment of antibody prevalence and specificity for distinct disease mechanisms in patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia among glutamatergic pathophysiologic abnormalities in psychiatric disorders. OBJECTIVES To compare the specificity and prevalence of NMDA-R antibodies in schizophrenia (DSM-IV criteria) with those of other psychiatric diagnoses and to determine whether antibody subtypes characterize overlap with and distinction from those in NMDA-R encephalitis. DESIGN Serum from 459 patients admitted with acute schizophrenia, major depression (MD), and borderline personality disorder (BLPD) or individuals serving as matched controls was obtained from our scientific blood bank. To explore epitope specificity and antibody subtype, IgA/IgG/IgM NMDA-R (NR1a or NR1a/NR2b) and α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate receptors (AMPA-R) (GluR1/GluR2) serum antibodies were determined. PARTICIPANTS Two hundred thirty matched healthy controls were compared with patients (unmedicated for at least 6 weeks) with schizophrenia (n = 121), MD (n = 70), or BLPD (n = 38). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The primary outcome was the overall number of seropositive cases for NMDA-R and AMPA-R antibodies; the secondary outcome was disease specificity of IgA/IgG/IgM antibodies and epitope specificity for clinical subgroups. RESULTS Diverse NMDA-R antibodies were identified in 15 subjects, primarily those with an initial schizophrenia diagnosis (9.9%), opposed to MD (2.8%), BLPD (0), and controls (0.4%). Retrospectively, 2 patients initially classified as having catatonic or disorganized schizophrenia were reclassified as having misdiagnosed NMDA-R encephalitis (presence of specific serum and cerebrospinal fluid IgG NR1a antibodies). In all other seropositive cases, the antibodies consisted of classes IgA and/or IgM or were directed against NR1a/NR2b (not against NR1a alone). None of the patients or controls had antibodies against AMPA-R. CONCLUSIONS Acutely ill patients with an initial schizophrenia diagnosis show an increased prevalence of NMDA-R antibodies. The repertoire of antibody subtypes in schizophrenia and MD is different from that with NMDA-R encephalitis. The latter disorder should be considered as a differential diagnosis, particularly in young females with acute disorganized behavior or catatonia.
Objective: Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is the most common comorbid condition in childhood ADHD. This trial was prospectively designed to explore ODD symptoms in ADHD adults. Method: A total of 86 patients in this placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of methylphenidate transdermal system (MTS) were categorized based on the presence of ODD symptoms in childhood and adulthood, and then were compared for baseline and outcome differences. Results: In all, 42% met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV) criteria for ODD as adults and were significantly more impaired on measures of ADHD, personality disorder, and substance abuse and 27% had childhood ODD that had resolved. Childhood and adult ODD symptoms were significantly correlated. ODD and ADHD symptoms improved significantly with MTS (p < .001), and the most consistently significant results were found in participants with adult ODD. Conclusion: A total of 69% met criteria for ODD as children and/or adults. Understanding how ODD interacts with ADHD to impact personality disorder, substance abuse, and treatment response has important clinical, social, and theoretical implications.
In this article, the development of Five-Factor Model (FFM) personality disorder (PD) prototypes for the assessment of DSM-IV PDs are reviewed, as well as subsequent procedures for scoring individuals' FFM data with regard to these PD prototypes, including similarity scores and simple additive counts that are based on a quantitative prototype matching methodology. Both techniques, which result in very strongly correlated scores, demonstrate convergent and discriminant validity, and provide clinically useful information with regard to various forms of functioning. The techniques described here for use with FFM data are quite different from the prototype matching methods used elsewhere.
We describe a case of shibari, a double hanging sexual asphyxia practice, which ended fatally for one of the two women involved. We present the autopsy findings and a psychiatric and psychometric evaluation of the surviving participant. The survivor had a borderline personality disorder, had suffered sexual abuse as a child, and had a history of illicit substance consumption, self-harm behavior, and sexual dysregulation. This case study raises doubts regarding the safety measures adopted by participants in masochistic practices and the engagement of people with psychiatric disorders in these extremely dangerous games. Further case studies of living participants in such games are likely to shed light on this practice and facilitate treatment.
OBJECTIVE The authors examined 3-year transitions among nonuse, asymptomatic use, and problem use of illicit drugs for U.S. adults in the general household population. METHOD Data were from the nationally representative National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a study of 34,653 adults interviewed twice, 3 years apart. Respondents were categorized on three mutually exclusive categories of baseline drug status: past-year nonusers (N=32,675), past-year asymptomatic drug users (N=861), and past-year symptomatic drug users (N=1,117). Symptomatic drug use, or problem use, was defined as presence of one or more symptoms that operationalize DSM-IV drug abuse and dependence criteria. The authors assessed sociodemographic, health, substance use, and psychiatric covariates for association with 3-year transitions to different status categories. RESULTS Among baseline nonusers, 95.4% continued to be nonusers at follow-up, 2.1% became asymptomatic users, and 2.5% developed problem use. Among baseline asymptomatic users, 66.6% had stopped using drugs at follow-up, 14.3% continued to be asymptomatic users, and 19.1% had developed problem use. Nearly half (49.0%) of those with problem use at baseline had stopped using drugs at follow-up, 10.9% had transitioned to asymptomatic use, and 40.1% continued to have problem use. Younger age, male sex, white race, and not being married were associated with progression from nonuse to use or problem use, as were alcohol and tobacco use and disorders, major depression, and schizotypal, borderline, and narcissistic personality disorders. Panic disorder and avoidant personality disorder were associated with less progression. CONCLUSIONS Transitions in drug use status are common. The finding that alcohol and tobacco variables and co-occurring psychopathology are important correlates of transitions suggests the value of addressing all co-occurring disorders and substance use in patient assessments and treatment planning, both to prevent adverse transitions and to promote positive transitions.
The role of experiential avoidance, psychopathology, and borderline personality features in experiencing positive emotions: a path analysis
- Journal of behavior therapy and experimental psychiatry
- Published over 5 years ago
Experiential avoidance (EA) is an important factor in maintaining different forms of psychopathology including borderline personality pathology (BPD). So far little is known about the functions of EA, BPD features and general psychopathology for positive emotions. In this study we investigated three different anticipated pathways of their influence on positive emotions.
Sharp et al. (2011) recently demonstrated that in adolescents with borderline traits the loss of mentalization is more apparent in the emergence of unusual alternative strategies (excessive theory of mind or hypermentalizing) than in the loss of the capacity per se (no mentalizing or undermentalizing). This suggests that hypermentalizing could be a worthwhile social-cognitive treatment target in adolescents with borderline traits. The aim of the current study was to examine (1) whether a reduction in excessive theory of mind or hypermentalizing is achieved between admission and discharge for adolescent inpatients; (2) whether the hypothesized reduction is more apparent in adolescents meeting criteria for BPD compared with psychiatric controls; and (3) whether other forms of mentalizing would also be sensitive to and malleable by inpatient treatment in the same way we expected hypermentalizing to be. The “Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition” Task (Dziobek et al., 2006) was administered to consecutive admissions to an adolescent inpatient setting (n = 164) at admission and discharge, alongside measures of borderline symptomology and interview-based diagnosis of BPD. Results demonstrated that 41% (n = 68) of the sample met full or intermediate criteria for BPD on an interview-based measure of BPD. A relation between borderline traits and hypermentalizing that appears to be independent of internalizing and externalizing problems was demonstrated. Hypermentalizing, but not other forms of social-cognitive reasoning (as measured by the Child Eyes Test, Basic Empathy Scale and the Mentalizing Stories Test for Adolescents), was found to be malleable through a milieu-based inpatient treatment. Clinical implications of the findings for the organization of treatment settings for adolescents are discussed.