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Concept: Bobbi Gibb

135

Bright sunlight filtered through the awnings of the medical tent pitched in Copley Square, where I joined the many medical professionals caring for people who’d fallen ill from their 26.2-mile run. Some volunteers had been staffing the medical tent for years - one nurse had worked at the Boston Marathon more than 25 times. Sickened and stressed runners poured into our makeshift hospital. A runner stumbled in and vomited into a bag. We helped him onto a cot, where he sat shivering. “You’re OK,” a nurse said gently, wiping his face. But his core temperature had dropped to 96 degrees, . . .

Concepts: Health care, Patient, Marathon, Boston Marathon, Robert Kipkoech Cheruiyot, World Marathon Majors, Bobbi Gibb, Copley Square

11

It is not known whether global warming will affect winning times in endurance events, and counterbalance improvements in race performances that have occurred over the past century. We examined a time series (1933-2004) from the Boston Marathon to test for an effect of warming on winning times by men and women. We found that warmer temperatures and headwinds on the day of the race slow winning times. However, 1.6°C warming in annual temperatures in Boston between 1933 and 2004 did not consistently slow winning times because of high variability in temperatures on race day. Starting times for the race changed to earlier in the day beginning in 2006, making it difficult to anticipate effects of future warming on winning times. However, our models indicate that if race starting times had not changed and average race day temperatures had warmed by 0.058°C/yr, a high-end estimate, we would have had a 95% chance of detecting a consistent slowing of winning marathon times by 2100. If average race day temperatures had warmed by 0.028°C/yr, a mid-range estimate, we would have had a 64% chance of detecting a consistent slowing of winning times by 2100.

Concepts: Time, Effect, Affect, Marathon, Boston Marathon, Robert Kipkoech Cheruiyot, World Marathon Majors, Bobbi Gibb

6

To compare finish times across WMM races for Boston, London, Berlin, Chicago and New York Marathons.

Concepts: Marathon, Boston Marathon, Robert Kipkoech Cheruiyot, World Marathon Majors, Bobbi Gibb, Berlin Marathon, New York City Marathon, Chicago Marathon

6

We discuss the strengths of the medical response to the Boston Marathon bombings that led to the excellent outcomes. Potential shortcomings were recognized, and lessons learned will provide a foundation for further improvements applicable to all institutions.

Concepts: Marathon, Boston, Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Bomb, Boston Marathon, Robert Kipkoech Cheruiyot, World Marathon Majors, Bobbi Gibb

4

The Boston Marathon bombing was the first major, modern US terrorist event with multiple, severe lower extremity injuries. First responders, including trained professionals and civilian bystanders, rushed to aid the injured. The purpose of this review was to determine how severely bleeding extremity injuries were treated in the prehospital setting in the aftermath of the Boston Marathon bombing.

Concepts: Massachusetts, Marathon, Boston, Boston Marathon, Robert Kipkoech Cheruiyot, World Marathon Majors, Bobbi Gibb

2

Otologic trauma was the most common physical injury sustained after the April 15, 2013, Boston Marathon bombings. The goal of this study is to describe the resultant otologic morbidity and to report on early outcomes.

Concepts: Traumatology, Physical trauma, Marathon, Boston Marathon, Robert Kipkoech Cheruiyot, World Marathon Majors, Bobbi Gibb

2

Immediately following the Boston Marathon attacks, individuals near the scene posted a deluge of data to social media sites. Previous work has shown that these data can be leveraged to provide rapid insight during natural disasters, disease outbreaks and ongoing conflicts that can assist in the public health and medical response. Here, we examine and discuss the social media messages posted immediately after and around the Boston Marathon bombings, and find that specific keywords appear frequently prior to official public safety and news media reports. Individuals immediately adjacent to the explosions posted messages within minutes via Twitter which identify the location and specifics of events, demonstrating a role for social media in the early recognition and characterization of emergency events. *Christopher Cassa and Rumi Chunara contributed equally to this work.

Concepts: Marathon, Boston, Social media, Boston Marathon, Robert Kipkoech Cheruiyot, World Marathon Majors, Bobbi Gibb, Milwaukee Journal Sentinel

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All lives contain negative events, but how we think about these events differs across individuals; negative events often include positive details that can be remembered alongside the negative, and the ability to maintain both representations may be beneficial. In a survey examining emotional responses to the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings, the current study investigated how this ability shifts as a function of age and individual differences in initial experience of the event. Specifically, this study examined how emotional importance (i.e. self-reported emotional arousal and personal significance), involvement (i.e. self and friend/family involvement in the 2013 Boston Marathon and self-involvement in prior marathons), and self-reported surprise upon hearing about the event related to the tendency to report focusing on the negative and positive aspects of the bombings. Structural equation models revealed that while greater emotional importance and surprise were associated with a greater focus on negative elements, involvement and age were associated with increased consideration of positive aspects. Further, emotional importance was more strongly related to an increased focus on negative aspects for young adults and an increased focus on positive aspects for older adults, highlighting a tendency for older adults to enhance positive features of an otherwise highly negative event.

Concepts: Emotion, Marathon, Structural equation modeling, Boston, Boston Marathon, Robert Kipkoech Cheruiyot, World Marathon Majors, Bobbi Gibb

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To explore the differences in perception of the medical response to the victims of the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings between laypeople and healthcare professionals.

Concepts: Health care, Massachusetts, Marathon, Boston Marathon, Robert Kipkoech Cheruiyot, World Marathon Majors, Bobbi Gibb