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Concept: Block

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The PRISMA Statement is a reporting guideline designed to improve transparency of systematic reviews (SRs) and meta-analyses. Seven extensions to the PRISMA Statement have been published to address the reporting of different types or aspects of SRs, and another eight are in development. We performed a scoping review to map the research that has been conducted to evaluate the uptake and impact of the PRISMA Statement and extensions. We also synthesised studies evaluating how well SRs published after the PRISMA Statement was disseminated adhere to its recommendations.

Concepts: Evaluation, Systematic review, Review, Meta-analysis, Block, The UpTake, Perl, Review websites

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We investigated whether anxious individuals, who adopt an inherently negative mindset, demonstrate a particularly salient memory bias for words tainted by negative contexts. To this end, sequentially presented target words, overlayed onto negative or neutral pictures, were studied in separate blocks (within-subjects) using a deep or shallow encoding instruction (between-subjects). Following study, in Test 1, participants completed separate recognition test blocks for the words overlayed onto the negative and the neutral contexts. Following this, in Test 2, participants completed a recognition test for the foils from each Test 1 block. We found a significant three-way interaction on Test 2, such that individuals with high anxiety who initially studied target words using a shallow encoding instruction, demonstrated significantly elevated memory for foils that were contained within the negative Test 1 block. Results show that during retrieval (Test 1), participants re-entered the mode of processing (negative or neutral) engaged at encoding, tainting the encoding of foils with that same mode of processing. The findings suggest that individuals with high relative to low anxiety, adopt a particularly salient negative retrieval mode, and this creates a downstream bias in encoding and subsequent retrieval of otherwise neutral information.

Concepts: Anxiety, Psychology, Memory, Demonstration, 2000s music groups, Relative humidity, Block, ConTeXt

30

Currently available local anesthetics approved for single-injection peripheral nerve blocks have a maximum duration of <24 hours. A liposomal bupivacaine formulation (EXPAREL, Pacira Pharmaceuticals, Inc., San Diego, CA), releasing bupivacaine over 96 hours, recently gained Food and Drug Administration approval exclusively for wound infiltration but not peripheral nerve blocks.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Anesthesia, Local anesthesia, Local anesthetic, Peripheral nervous system, Block, Nerve block

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BACKGROUND: Interscalene nerve blocks provide adequate analgesia, but there are no objective criteria for early assessment of correct catheter placement. In the present study, pulse oximetry technology was used to evaluate changes in the perfusion index (PI) in both blocked and unblocked arms, and changes in the plethysmographic variability index (PVI) were evaluated once mechanical ventilation was instituted. METHODS: The PI and PVI values were assessed using a Radical-7™ finger pulse oximetry device (Masimo Corp., Irvine, CA, USA) in both arms of 30 orthopedic patients who received an interscalene catheter at least 25 min before induction of general anesthesia. Data were evaluated at baseline, on application of local anesthetics; five, ten, and 15 min after onset of interscalene nerve blocks; after induction of general anesthesia; before and after a 500 mL colloid fluid challenge; and five minutes thereafter. RESULTS: In the 25 patients with successful blocks, the difference between the PI values in the blocked arm and the PI values in the contralateral arm increased within five minutes of the application of the local anesthetics (P < 0.05) and increased progressively until 15 min. After induction of general anesthesia, the PI increased in the unblocked arm while it remained relatively constant in the blocked arm, thus reducing the difference in the PI. A fluid challenge resulted in a decrease in PVI values in both arms. CONCLUSION: The perfusion index increases after successful interscalene nerve blockade and may be used as an indicator for successful block placement in awake patients. The PVI values before and after a fluid challenge can be useful to detect changes in preload, and this can be performed in both blocked and unblocked arms. (ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT 01389011).

Concepts: Anesthesia, Local anesthesia, Catheter, Pulse oximetry, Local anesthetic, Block, Blocking, Masimo

27

Copy-move forgery is one of the most popular tampering artifacts in digital images. In this paper, we present an efficient method for copy-move forgery detection using Multiresolution Local Binary Patterns (MLBP). The proposed method is robust to geometric distortions and illumination variations of duplicated regions. Furthermore, the proposed block-based method recovers parameters of the geometric transformations. First, the image is divided into overlapping blocks and feature vectors for each block are extracted using LBP operators. The feature vectors are sorted based on lexicographical order. Duplicated image blocks are determined in the block matching step using k-d tree for more time reduction. Finally, in order to both determine the parameters of geometric transformations and remove the possible false matches, RANSAC (RANdom SAmple Consensus) algorithm is used. Experimental results show that the proposed approach is able to precisely detect duplicated regions even after distortions such as rotation, scaling, JPEG compression, blurring and noise adding.

Concepts: Mathematics, Computer graphics, Group, C, Euclidean vector, Match, Block, Blocking

27

Twelve Dorper × Pelibuey wether lambs (26.8 ± 1.6 kg initial BW, 5 mo of age) were used to evaluate effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on feedlot performance, and effects of ZH and ZH supplementation period (15 and 30 d) on nutrient intake and digestibility. Lambs were blocked by initial BW, and assigned randomly within BW blocks to 1 of 2 treatments: 1) control (no ZH); and 2) supplemented with ZH (10 mg ZH/wether lamb daily). Measurements of intake and digestibility were performed on d 9 to15 and 24 to 30. Feedlot performance data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design, and nutrient intake and digestibility data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Final BW, ADG, total BW gain, and G:F were greater (P ≤ 0.04) for ZH than for control lambs. No treatment × feeding duration interaction for nutrient intake and apparent total tract digestibility were observed (P > 0.05). Intake of DM, OM, CP, and gross energy were lower (P ≤ 0.03) for ZH than for control. Lambs fed for 30 d had greater (P ≤ 0.04) NDF and gross energy intake compared with those fed for 15 d. Total tract digestibility of DM, OM, CP, EE, and ADF (P ≤ 0.03) was lower for ZH than control. Furthermore, calculated DE, ME, and TDN intake decreased (P < 0.01) with ZH supplementation. Also, DM, CP, and EE digestibility were greater (P < 0.01) for 30 d than for 15 d. Additionally, greater (P ≤ 0.01) DE, ME, and TDN intake was observed for 30 d compared with 15 d. In conclusion, ZH supplementation of wether lambs consuming feedlot diets resulted in improved feedlot performance and reduced the intake and digestibility of some nutrients.

Concepts: Nutrition, Nutrient, Trigraph, Gh, Block, Domestic sheep, Blocking, Block design

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Well-defined ABC triblock copolymers based on two hydrophilic blocks, A and C, and a hydrophobic block B are synthesized and their self-assembly behavior is investigated. Interestingly, at the same solvent, concentration, pH, and temperature, different shape micelles are observed, spherical and worm-like micelles, depending on the preparation method. Specifically, spherical micelles are observed with bulk rehydration while both spherical and worm-like micelles are observed with film rehydration.

Concepts: Chemical properties, Hydrophobic effect, Copolymer, Solubility, Block, Blocking

24

A straightforward method for the synthesis of oligonucleotide blocks using a Cbz-type alkyl-chain-soluble support (Z-ACSS) attached to the 3'-OH group of 3'-terminal nucleosides was developed. The Z-ACSS allowed for the preparation of fully protected deoxyribo- and ribo-oligonucleotides without chromatographic purification and released dimer- to tetramer-size oligonucleotide blocks via hydrogenation using a Pd/C catalyst without significant loss or migration of protective groups such as 5'-end 4,4'-dimethoxtrityl, 2-cyanoethyl on internucleotide bonds, or 2'-TBS.

Concepts: Block

23

Suprascapular nerve block (SSNB) is used in the management of frozen shoulder. There are no evidences from the literature that can determine how many blocks and the interval between them.

Concepts: Shoulder, Supraspinatus muscle, Suprascapular nerve, Suprascapular notch, Block, Blocking

22

Mitragynine is the major alkaloid found in the leaves of M. speciosa Korth (Rubiaceae), a plant that is native to Southeast Asia. This compound has been used, either traditionally or recreationally, due to its psychostimulant and opioid-like effects. Recently, mitragynine has been shown to exert conditioned place preference (CPP), indicating the rewarding and motivational properties of M. speciosa. Here, the involvement of GABABreceptors in mediating mitragynine reward is studied using a CPP paradigm in rats. First, we examined the effects of GABABreceptor agonist baclofen (1.25, 2.5 and 5 mg/kg) on the acquisition of mitragynine (10 mg/kg)-induced CPP. Second, the involvement of GABABreceptors in the expression of mitragynine-induced CPP was tested. We found that the acquisition of mitragynine-induced CPP could be blocked by higher doses (2.5 and 5 mg/kg) of baclofen. Baclofen at a high dose inhibited locomotor activity and caused a CPP. Furthermore, we found that baclofen (2.5 and 5 mg/kg) also blocked the expression of mitragynine-induced CPP. These findings suggest that both, the acquisition and expression of mitragynine’s reinforcing properties is controlled by the GABABreceptor.

Concepts: Southeast Asia, Dose, Motivation, Reward system, The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, Kratom, Block, Conditioned place preference