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Concept: Bipolar junction transistor


Precise control over processing, transport and delivery of ionic and molecular signals is of great importance in numerous fields of life sciences. Integrated circuits based on ion transistors would be one approach to route and dispense complex chemical signal patterns to achieve such control. To date several types of ion transistors have been reported; however, only individual devices have so far been presented and most of them are not functional at physiological salt concentrations. Here we report integrated chemical logic gates based on ion bipolar junction transistors. Inverters and NAND gates of both npn type and complementary type are demonstrated. We find that complementary ion gates have higher gain and lower power consumption, as compared with the single transistor-type gates, which imitates the advantages of complementary logics found in conventional electronics. Ion inverters and NAND gates lay the groundwork for further development of solid-state chemical delivery circuits.

Concepts: Molecule, Chemistry, Integrated circuit, Transistor, Bipolar junction transistor, Electronics, Logic gate, MOSFET


Silicon transistors are expected to have new gate architectures, channel materials and switching mechanisms in ten years' time. The trend in transistor scaling has already led to a change in gate structure from two dimensions to three, used in fin field-effect transistors, to avoid problems inherent in miniaturization such as high off-state leakage current and the short-channel effect. At present, planar and fin architectures using III-V materials, specifically InGaAs, are being explored as alternative fast channels on silicon because of their high electron mobility and high-quality interface with gate dielectrics. The idea of surrounding-gate transistors, in which the gate is wrapped around a nanowire channel to provide the best possible electrostatic gate control, using InGaAs channels on silicon, however, has been less well investigated because of difficulties in integrating free-standing InGaAs nanostructures on silicon. Here we report the position-controlled growth of vertical InGaAs nanowires on silicon without any buffering technique and demonstrate surrounding-gate transistors using InGaAs nanowires and InGaAs/InP/InAlAs/InGaAs core-multishell nanowires as channels. Surrounding-gate transistors using core-multishell nanowire channels with a six-sided, high-electron-mobility transistor structure greatly enhance the on-state current and transconductance while keeping good gate controllability. These devices provide a route to making vertically oriented transistors for the next generation of field-effect transistors and may be useful as building blocks for wireless networks on silicon platforms.

Concepts: Integrated circuit, Semiconductor, Silicon, Transistor, Bipolar junction transistor, Field-effect transistor, Germanium, Transconductance


In this letter, we present an original demonstration of an associative learning neural network inspired by the famous Pavlov’s dogs experiment. A single nanoparticle organic memory field effect transistor (NOMFET) is used to implement each synapse. We show how the physical properties of this dynamic memristive device can be used to perform low-power write operations for the learning and implement short-term association using temporal coding and spike-timing-dependent plasticity-based learning. An electronic circuit was built to validate the proposed learning scheme with packaged devices, with good reproducibility despite the complex synaptic-like dynamic of the NOMFET in pulse regime.

Concepts: Neuroscience, Silicon, Transistor, Bipolar junction transistor, Field-effect transistor, Electronics, Electronic engineering, Memristor


We study the photoresponse of single-layer MoS2 field-effect transistors by scanning photocurrent microscopy. We find that, unlike in many other semiconductors, the photocurrent generation in single-layer MoS2 is dominated by the photo-thermoelectric effect and not by the separation of photoexcited electron-hole pairs across the Schottky barriers at the MoS2/electrode interfaces. We observe a large value for the Seebeck coefficient for single-layer MoS2 that, by an external electric field, can be tuned between -4x10^2 µV/K and -1x10^5 µV/K. This large and tunable Seebeck coefficient of the single-layer MoS2 paves the way to new applications of this material such as on-chip thermopower generation and waste thermal energy harvesting.

Concepts: Fundamental physics concepts, Semiconductor, Transistor, Bipolar junction transistor, Diode, Thermoelectric effect, Electron hole, Carrier generation and recombination


Ambipolar transport behavior in isoindigo-based conjugated polymers is observed for the first time. Fluorination on the isoindigo unit effectively lowers the LUMO level of the polymer and significantly increases the electron mobility from 10-2 to 0.43 cm2 V-1 s-1 while maintaining high hole mobility to 1.85 cm2 V-1 s-1 for FET devices fabricated in ambient. Further investigation indicates that fluorination also affects the interchain interactions of polymer backbones, thus leading to different polymer packing in thin films.

Concepts: Polymer, Semiconductor, Transistor, Bipolar junction transistor, Field-effect transistor, CMOS, Electron mobility, Drift velocity


In this work, n-type porous graphite-like C3N4 (denoted as p-g-C3N4) was fabricated and modified with p-type nanostructured BiOI to form a novel BiOI/p-g-C3N4 p-n heterojunction photocatalyst for the efficient photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB). The results show that the BiOI/p-g-C3N4 heterojunction photocatalyst exhibits superior photocatalytic activity compared to pure BiOI and p-g-C3N4. The visible-light photocatalytic activity enhancement of BiOI/p-g-C3N4 heterostructures could be attributed to its strong absorption in the visible region and low recombination rate of the electron-hole pairs because of the heterojunction formed between BiOI and p-g-C3N4. It was also found that the photodegradation of MB molecules is mainly attributed to the oxidation action of the generated O2˙(-) radicals and partly to the action of hvb(+)via direct hole oxidation process.

Concepts: Iron, Semiconductor, Solar cell, Bipolar junction transistor, Photocatalysis, P-n junction, Heterojunction, Electron hole


Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is attracting growing curiosities for its high mobility and circular dichroism. As a crucial step to merge these advantages into a single device, we demonstrated an method to electronically control and locate a p-n junction in liquid-gated ambipolar MoS2 transistors. A bias-independent p-n junction was formed and displayed clear rectifying I-V characteristics. Such a p-n diode is expected to play a crucial role in developing optoelectronic valleytronics devices.

Concepts: Vacuum tube, Semiconductor, Transistor, Bipolar junction transistor, Diode, Electronics, Logic gate, P-n junction


High quality growth of planar GaAs nanowires (NWs) with widths as small as 35 nm is realized by comprehensively mapping the parameter space of group III flow, V/III ratio, and temperature as the size of the NWs scale down. Using a growth mode modulation scheme for the NW and thin film barrier layers, monolithically integrated AlGaAs barrier-all-around planar GaAs NW high electron mobility transistors (NW-HEMTs) are achieved. The peak extrinsic transconductance, drive current, and effective electron velocity are 550 µS/µm, 435 µA/µm, and ~2.9 ×〖10〗^7 cm/s, respectively, at 2V supply voltage with a gate length of 120 nm. The excellent DC performance demonstrated here shows the potential of this bottom-up planar NW technology for low-power high-speed very-large-scale-integration (VLSI) circuits.

Concepts: Vacuum tube, Integrated circuit, Semiconductor, Transistor, Bipolar junction transistor, Germanium, Drift velocity, Transconductance


As MOSFET (Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor) detectors allow dose measurements in real time, the interest in these dosimeters is growing. The aim of this study was to investigate the dosimetric properties of commercially available TN-502RD-H MOSFET silicon detectors (Best Medical Canada, Ottawa, Canada) in order to use them for in vivo dosimetry in interventional radiology and for dose reconstruction in case of overexposure. Reproducibility of the measurements, dose rate dependence, and dose response of the MOSFET detectors have been studied with a Co source. Influence of the dose rate, frequency, and pulse duration on MOSFET responses has also been studied in pulsed x-ray fields. Finally, in order to validate the integrated dose given by MOSFET detectors, MOSFETs and TLDs (LiF:Mg,Cu,P) were fixed on an Alderson-Rando phantom in the conditions of an interventional neuroradiology procedure, and their responses have been compared. The results of this study show the suitability of MOSFET detectors for in vivo dosimetry in interventional radiology and for dose reconstruction in case of accident, provided a well-corrected energy dependence, a pulse duration equal to or higher than 10 ms, and an optimized contact between the detector and the skin of the patient are achieved.

Concepts: Radiology, Integrated circuit, Semiconductor device, Transistor, Bipolar junction transistor, CMOS, MOSFET, Julius Edgar Lilienfeld


Atomically thin two-dimensional materials have emerged as promising candidates for flexible and transparent electronic applications. Here we show non-volatile memory devices, based on field-effect transistors with large hysteresis, consisting entirely of stacked two-dimensional materials. Graphene and molybdenum disulphide were employed as both channel and charge-trapping layers, whereas hexagonal boron nitride was used as a tunnel barrier. In these ultrathin heterostructured memory devices, the atomically thin molybdenum disulphide or graphene-trapping layer stores charge tunnelled through hexagonal boron nitride, serving as a floating gate to control the charge transport in the graphene or molybdenum disulphide channel. By varying the thicknesses of two-dimensional materials and modifying the stacking order, the hysteresis and conductance polarity of the field-effect transistor can be controlled. These devices show high mobility, high on/off current ratio, large memory window and stable retention, providing a promising route towards flexible and transparent memory devices utilizing atomically thin two-dimensional materials.

Concepts: Transistor, Graphite, Bipolar junction transistor, Field-effect transistor, Computer storage, Non-volatile memory, Boron nitride, Flash memory