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Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Biopsy

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: Natalizumab is an efficacious agent for the induction and maintenance of remission in patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) who have failed anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of natalizumab outside of clinical trial at a US tertiary center.

Concepts: Inflammation, Biopsy, Effectiveness, Ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, Colonoscopy, Gastroenterology, Inflammatory bowel disease

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To determine the degree of variation in the handling of prostate needle biopsies (PBNx) in laboratories across Europe.

Concepts: Cancer, Biopsy, Pathology, University, Medical tests, Needle aspiration biopsy

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It is becoming increasingly recognized that purely clinical endpoints may not be sufficient in the treatment of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. As such, mucosal disease assessment has become a prominent component of the majority of recent clinical trials in Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. There is mounting evidence that the attainment of mucosal healing leads to improved clinical outcomes in both Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. However, the use of mucosal healing as a therapeutic endpoint in inflammatory bowel disease is in its early stages, as a number of issues limit its application to routine clinical practice.

Concepts: Biopsy, Ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, Colon, Colonoscopy, Gastroenterology, Inflammatory bowel disease, Helminthic therapy

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Abstract Objective. This study aimed to survey current Swedish practices for performing and handling transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsies. Material and methods. A Swedish Urology Network (SUNe) was organized for the distribution of information, survey studies and research collaborations. A web-based questionnaire was distributed to the members in 2011. Results. In this first SUNe survey, 137 (91%) of the 151 members replied. All used antibiotic prophylaxis (84% ciprofloxacin, 12% trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole), most commonly (63%) as a single dose of ciprofloxacin. Local anaesthesia was used by 87%. Half of the respondents only used a “side-fire” probe, whereas 17% always used an “end-fire” probe. Most (84%) routinely took 10 or more biopsy cores. About three-quarters started with the right base of the prostate and did not routinely take midline biopsies. More than one-third never or rarely sampled the anterior part of the prostate. There was great variability in how biopsy location was reported, but 71% considered a national standardized coordinate system desirable. Fine-needle aspiration was used occasionally by 39%, in more than 10% of cases by 6% and always by 2%. Most urologists mounted the biopsy cores on paper before fixation (78%), put only one core per jar (75%) and used flat-bottomed jars (70%). Conclusions. Most routines for handling of prostate biopsies, antibiotic prophylaxis, local anaesthesia and number of cores were uniform. However, there is still a need for standardization of the performance of ultrasound-guided biopsies. Although the method used to specify biopsy location varied greatly, most urologists would prefer a national standardized system.

Concepts: Biopsy, Pathology, Surgery, Prostate cancer, Local anesthesia, Medical tests, Needle aspiration biopsy, Benign prostatic hyperplasia

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BACKGROUND: We compared urinary prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3), transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2):v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog (avian) (ERG) gene fusion (T2:ERG), and the serum [-2]proprostate-specific antigen ([-2]proPSA)-based prostate health index (Phi) for predicting biopsy outcome.METHODS: Serum samples and first-catch urine samples were collected after digital rectal examination (DRE) from consented outpatients with PSA 0.5-20 μg/L who were scheduled for prostate biopsy. The PCA3 score (PROGENSA PCA3, Hologic Gen-Probe) and T2:ERG score (Hologic Gen-Probe) were determined. Measurements of serum PSA, free PSA, and [-2]proPSA (Beckman Coulter) were performed, and the percentages of free PSA (%fPSA) and Phi ([-2]proPSA/%fPSA × ∣PSA) were determined.RESULTS: Of 246 enrolled men, prostate cancer (PCa) was diagnosed in 110 (45%) and there was no evidence of malignancy (NEM) in 136 (55%). A first set of biopsies was performed in 136 (55%) of all men, and 110 (45%) had ≥1 repeat biopsies. PCA3, Phi, and T2:ERG differed significantly between men with PCa and NEM, and these markers showed the largest areas under the ROC curve (AUCs) (0.74, 0.68, and 0.63, respectively). PCA3 had the largest AUC of all parameters, albeit not statistically different from Phi. Phi showed somewhat lower specificities than PCA3 at 90% sensitivity. Combination of both markers enhanced diagnostic power with modest AUC gains of 0.01-0.04. Although PCA3 had the highest AUC in the repeat-biopsy cohort, the highest AUC for Phi was observed in DRE-negative patients with PSA in the 2-10 μg/L range.CONCLUSIONS: PCA3 and Phi were superior to the other evaluated parameters but their combination gave only moderate enhancements in diagnostic accuracy for PCa at first or repeat prostate biopsy.

Concepts: Cancer, Biopsy, Prostate cancer, Benign prostatic hyperplasia, Early prostate cancer antigen-2, Beckman Coulter, Rectal examination, PCA3

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Bacteria play an important role in the onset and perpetuation of intestinal inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Unlike in Crohn’s disease (CD), in which dysbiosis has been better characterised, in ulcerative colitis (UC), only small cohorts have been studied and showed conflicting data. Therefore, we evaluated in a large cohort if the microbial signature described in CD is also present in UC, and if we could characterise predominant dysbiosis in UC. To assess the functional impact of dysbiosis, we quantified the bacterial metabolites.

Concepts: Bacteria, Biopsy, Ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, Colonoscopy, Intestine, Gastroenterology, Inflammatory bowel disease

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PURPOSE: Compare the effectiveness of PCA3 and select comparators for improving initial or repeat biopsy decision-making in men at risk of prostate cancer, or treatment choices in men with prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MEDLINE®, EMBASE®, Cochrane Database and grey literature were searched from January 1990 through May 2012. Included studies were matched, and measured PCA3 and comparator(s) within a cohort. No matched analyses were possible. Differences in independent performance estimates between PCA3 and comparators were computed within studies. Studies were assessed for quality using QUADAS, and strength of evidence using GRADE criteria. RESULTS: Among 1,556 publications identified, 34 observational studies were analyzed (24 addressed diagnostic accuracy; 13 treatment decisions). Most studies were conducted in opportunistic cohorts of men referred for procedures, and were not designed to answer the key questions. Two study biases (partial verification and sampling) were addressed by analyses, allowing some conclusions to be drawn. PCA3 was more discriminatory than total PSA elevations (e.g., at an observed 50% specificity, summary sensitivities were 77% and 57%, respectively). Analyses indicated this finding holds for initial and repeat biopsies and that the markers were independent predictors. For all other biopsy decision-making comparisons and associated health outcomes, SOE was Insufficient. For treatment decision-making, SOE was Insufficient for all outcomes and comparators. CONCLUSIONS: PCA3 had higher diagnostic accuracy than tPSA elevations, but SOE was Low (limited confidence in effect estimates). SOE was Insufficient to conclude that PCA3 testing leads to improved health outcomes. For all other outcomes and comparators, SOE was Insufficient.

Concepts: Scientific method, Cancer, Critical thinking, Biopsy, Pathology, Prostate cancer, Early prostate cancer antigen-2, PCA3

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PURPOSE: Retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF) is a rare disease with an expanding etiologic spectrum. We aimed to analyze non-invasive diagnosis strategy, associated disorders, monitoring, treatment and prognosis. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study in a single tertiary center. RESULTS: Eighteen RPF cases (11 males) followed between 1996 and 2009 were reviewed. Blood CRP level was high in all cases before treatment. CT scan, associated or not with MRI or 18-FDG PET-scan, confirmed the diagnosis in 15 patients. Histological analysis of a surgical biopsy specimen was performed in only three cases. Ten patients suffered retroperitoneal fibrosis secondary to systemic vasculitis (granulomatosis with polyangeitis, n=1, Takayasu aortitis, n=2), systemic fibrosis with Riedel thyroiditis (n=1) and atheromatous periaortitis (n=6). Fifteen patients were treated with corticosteroids with a mean treatment duration of 60 months (12-228). Dependency to corticosteroids was recorded in ten patients. Patients with fibrosis related to vasculitis were younger, had a higher CRP level, more frequent corticosteroid dependency and a higher relapse rate. Relapses were successfully treated with steroids. Immunosuppressive treatment was only prescribed in the setting of systemic vasculitis. No patient died, after a 6±2 years follow-up. Late relapses could occur, sometimes years after steroid therapy cessation. CONCLUSION: In our study, RPF occurred as a secondary disorder in 60% of the cases. Disease extension, relapse rate and treatment response varied according to the underlying cause of RPF, pleading for an extensive and systematic initial assessment. Since no death or end-stage renal insufficiency was observed, RPF might be considered as a steroid-sensitive and benign disorder.

Concepts: Cholesterol, Cohort study, Kidney, Biopsy, Corticosteroid, Steroid, Arthritis, Retroperitoneal fibrosis

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The purpose of this study was to investigate the interaction of skin with natural grass and artificial turf at clinical, histological and immunohistochemical level. Therefore, 14 male volunteers performed slidings on dry natural grass, wet natural grass and artificial turf. Directly and 24 h after the slidings, a clinical picture and a 3-mm punch biopsy of the lesion were taken. Paraffin sections (6 µm) were hematoxylin-eosin stained. Immunohistochemistry was performed for CD3, hBD-2, K16, K10, Ki67 and HSP70. Clinically, a sliding performed on artificial turf caused less erythema but more abrasion compared to natural grass. At histological level, artificial turf or dry natural grass damaged the stratum corneum the most. Directly after the sliding, CD3, hBD-2, K16, K10, Ki67 and HSP70 expression was normal. 24 h after a sliding on artificial turf or dry natural grass, an increase of K16, hBD-2 and HSP70 expression was observed. In this pilot study it was not possible to clearly distinguish between skin damage induced by a sliding on artificial turf and natural grass. However, small differences at clinical and histological level seem to exist. This demonstrates the potential of the skin as readout system to evaluate artificial turf systems and mechanical skin damage.

Concepts: Cancer, Biopsy, Anatomical pathology, Histology, Immunohistochemistry, Microtome, Artificial turf, Grass

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BACKGROUND: Skin involvement is of major prognostic value in systemic sclerosis (SSc) and often the primary outcome in clinical trials. Nevertheless, an objective, validated biomarker of skin fibrosis is lacking. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an imaging technology providing high-contrast images with 4 μm resolution, comparable with microscopy (‘virtual biopsy’). The present study evaluated OCT to detect and quantify skin fibrosis in SSc. METHODS: We performed 458 OCT scans of hands and forearms on 21 SSc patients and 22 healthy controls. We compared the findings with histology from three skin biopsies and by correlation with clinical assessment of the skin. We calculated the optical density (OD) of the OCT images employing Matlab software and performed statistical analysis of the results, including intraobserver/interobserver reliability, employing SPSS software. RESULTS: Comparison of OCT images with skin histology indicated a progressive loss of visualisation of the dermal-epidermal junction associated with dermal fibrosis. Furthermore, SSc affected skin showed a consistent decrease of OD in the papillary dermis, progressively worse in patients with worse modified Rodnan skin score (p<0.0001). Additionally, clinically unaffected skin was also distinguishable from healthy skin for its specific pattern of OD decrease in the reticular dermis (p<0.001). The technique showed an excellent intraobserver and interobserver reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient >0.8). CONCLUSIONS: OCT of the skin could offer a feasible and reliable quantitative outcome measure in SSc. Studies determining OCT sensitivity to change over time and its role in defining skin vasculopathy may pave the way to defining OCT as a valuable imaging biomarker in SSc.

Concepts: Optics, Biopsy, Skin, Optical coherence tomography, Covariance and correlation, Dermis, Scleroderma, Skin biopsy