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Concept: Bioavailability


Current arthritis treatments often have side-effects attributable to active compounds as well as route of administration. Cannabidiol (CBD) attenuates inflammation and pain without side-effects, but CBD is hydrophobic and has poor oral bioavailability. Topical drug application avoids gastrointestinal administration, first pass metabolism, providing more constant plasma levels.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Antibiotic, Medicinal chemistry, Topical, Route of administration, Pharmacokinetics, Biopharmaceutics Classification System, Bioavailability


Intestinal lymphatic drug delivery has been widely studied because drugs can bypass the first-pass metabolism in the liver via the lymphatic route, which increases oral bioavailability. Various lipid-based nanoparticles have been used to deliver hydrophobic drugs to the lymphatic pathway. This review focuses on the liposomal delivery systems used for intestinal lymphatic drug transport. Liposomal formulations have attracted particular attention because they can stimulate the production of chylomicrons and the incorporated drugs readily associate with enterocyte-derived chylomicrons, enhancing lymphatic drug transport. We believe that a full understanding of their contribution to intestinal drug translocation will lead to effective oral delivery with liposomal formulations.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Drug, Liver, Medicinal chemistry, Pharmacokinetics, Biopharmaceutics Classification System, Drug metabolism, Bioavailability


The aim of this study was to investigate possible interactions between grapefruit juice and montelukast for up to 4 hours.

Concepts: Bioavailability, Grapefruit, Grapefruit juice, Grapefruit spoon


The efficacy of oral risperidone treatment in prevention of schizophrenia is well known. However, oral side effects and patient compliance is always a problem for schizophrenics. In this study, risperidone was formulated into matrix transdermal patches to overcome these problems. The formulation factors for such patches, including eudragit RL 100 and eudragit RS 100 as matrix forming polymers, olive oil, groundnut oil and jojoba oil in different concentrations as enhancers and amount of drug loaded were investigated. The transdermal patches containing risperidone were prepared by solvent casting method and characterized for physicochemical and in vitro permeation studies through excised rat skin. Among the tested preparations, formulations with 20% risperidone, 3:2 ERL 100 and ERS 100 as polymers, mixture of olive oil and jojoba oil as enhancer, exhibited greatest cumulative amount of drug permeated (1.87 ± 0.09 mg/cm(2)) in 72 h, so batch ROJ was concluded as optimized formulation and assessed for pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and skin irritation potential. The pharmacokinetic characteristics of the optimized risperidone patch were determined using rabbits, while orally administered risperidone in solution was used for comparison. The calculated relative bioavailability of risperidone transdermal patch was 115.20% with prolonged release of drug. Neuroleptic efficacy of transdermal formulation was assessed by rota-rod and grip test in comparison with control and marketed oral formulations with no skin irritation. This suggests the transdermal application of risperidone holds promise for improved bioavailability and better management of schizophrenia in long-term basis.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Transdermal patch, In vivo, In vitro, Antipsychotic, Pharmacokinetics, Bioavailability, Transdermal patches


Abstract 1. Doxorubicin exhibited dose-independent pharmacokinetics after intravenous (5-20 mg/kg) and oral (20-100 mg/kg) administration to rats. Nearly all (82.1-99.7%) of the orally administered doxorubicin remained unabsorbed, and the hepatic first-pass extraction ratio and oral bioavailability of doxorubicin were approximately 0.5% and 1%, respectively. Based on these results, it is likely that the primary factor responsible for the low oral bioavailability of doxorubicin is the limited intestinal absorption, rather than the CYP3A4-mediated first-pass metabolism. 2. Moreover, the in vitro transport and cellular uptake studies using Caco-2 cell monolayers have revealed that doxorubicin crosses the intestinal epithelium primarily via the paracellular pathway (accounting for 85.6% of the overall absorptive transport) probably due to its physicochemical properties (hydrophilic cation; pK(a) = 9.67, log P = -0.5). These results suggest that P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated efflux activity does not play a significant role in limiting the intestinal absorption of doxorubicin, attenuating the absorptive transport by only 5.56-13.2%. 3. Taken together, the present study demonstrated that the limited and paracellular intestinal absorption of doxorubicin was a major factor responsible for its low oral bioavailability, restricting the role of CYP3A4-mediated first-pass metabolism and P-gp-mediated efflux.

Concepts: Epithelium, Small intestine, Physical chemistry, Medicinal chemistry, Pharmacokinetics, Biopharmaceutics Classification System, Bioavailability


A conventional human pharmacokinetic in vivo study is often considered as the “gold standard” to determine bioequivalence (BE) of drug products. However, this BE approach is not always applicable to the products not intended to be delivered into the systemic circulation. For locally acting gastrointestinal (GI) products, well designed in vitro approaches might be more practical in that they are not only able to qualitatively predict the presence of the active substance at the site of action, but also to specifically assess the performance of the active substance. For example, lanthanum carbonate chewable tablet, a locally acting GI phosphate binder when orally administrated, can release free lanthanum ions in the acid environment of the upper GI tract. The lanthanum ions directly reach the site of action to bind with dietary phosphate released from food to form highly insoluble lanthanum-phosphate complexes. This prevents the absorption of phosphate consequently reducing the serum phosphate. Thus, using conventional PK approach to demonstrate BE is meaningless since plasma levels are not relevant for local efficacy in the GI tract. Additionally the bioavailability of lanthanum carbonate is less than 0.002 %, and therefore, PK approach is not feasible. Therefore, an alternative assessment method is required. This paper presents an in vitro approach that can be used in lieu of PK or clinical studies to determine the BE of lanthanum carbonate chewable tablets. It is hoped that this information can be used to finalize an in vitro guidance for BE studies of lanthanum carbonate chewable tablets as well as to assist with “in vivo” biowaiver decision making. The scientific information might be useful to the pharmaceutical industry for the purpose of planning and designing future BE studies.

Concepts: Pharmacology, In vivo, Pharmaceutical industry, In vitro, Pharmacokinetics, Bioavailability, Lanthanum, Lanthanum carbonate


Introduction: Many active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), in development and already on the market, show a limited and variable bioavailability mainly associated to inadequate biopharmaceutical properties such as aqueous solubility and dissolution rate. The latter is the main factor responsible for the limited, and sometimes inadequate, efficacy of many orally administered drugs, belonging to class II and IV of the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS). Moreover, because of their low solubility, such drugs require high doses to be administered in order to obtain their pharmacological effect, increasing the side effect incidence. Areas covered: The present review reports the most common technological approaches intended to improve solubility and dissolution rate of BCS class II and IV drugs such as nanocrystals, solid dispersions, cyclodextrins and solid lipid nanoparticles. Particular attention will be focused on the use of inorganic matrices (lamellar anionic clays and mesoporous materials) as host for the delivery of poor soluble APIs (guest). Expert opinion: The employment of inorganic matrices for the realization of host-guest composites is a suitable strategy for the biopharmaceutical properties enhancement. This objective can be achieved without any modification of API chemical structure.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Drug, Solubility, Pharmaceutical drug, Biopharmaceutics Classification System, Bioavailability, Active ingredient, Solvation


PURPOSE: The objective of the study was to investigate the relative bioavailability between the generic tacrolimus products that are presently authorized in Spain by adjusted indirect comparison. This was based on demonstration of bioequivalence with the reference product (Prograf, Astellas Pharma), which makes these generic tacrolimus products prescribable, switchable and therapeutically equivalent to the reference product; yet, according to Spanish legislation, only prescribers can switch tacrolimus-containing products. METHODS: Data from independent bioequivalence studies that compare each generic product with the reference product were combined by adjusted indirect comparisons to investigate the relative bioavailability between generic drug products, since there is no direct bioequivalence study comparing generics to each other. RESULTS: Eight generic tacrolimus products in the form of capsules are presently authorized in Spain, but only five are marketed. These eight products represent only three different generic product developments. One product is authorized with four different names/companies, while another is authorized under three different names/companies. The adjusted indirect comparisons between generic products show bioequivalence within the conventional 80-125 % confidence interval acceptance criteria for area under the curve (AUC) and maximum concentration (Cmax). CONCLUSION: Not only are the generic products bioequivalent with the reference product, but also with each other.

Concepts: Comparison, Generic drug, Comparisons, Marketing, Bioavailability, Bioequivalence, Tacrolimus, Astellas Pharma


BACKGROUND: Ketoprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug which has been widely used for domestic animals. Orally administered racemic ketoprofen has been reported to be absorbed well in pigs, and bioavailability was almost complete. The objectives of this study were to analyze R- and S-ketoprofen concentrations in plasma after oral (PO) and intra muscular (IM) routes of administration, and to assess the relative bioavailability of racemic ketoprofen for both enantiomers between those routes of administration in growing pigs. METHODS: Eleven pigs received racemic ketoprofen at dose rates of 4 mg/kg PO and 3 mg/kg IM in a randomized, crossover design with a 6-day washout period. Enantiomers were separated on a chiral column and their concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated and relative bioavailability (Frel) was determined for S and R –ketoprofen. RESULTS: S-ketoprofen was the predominant enantiomer in pig plasma after administration of the racemic mixture via both routes. The mean (+/- SD) maximum S-ketoprofen concentration in plasma (7.42 mg/L +/- 2.35 in PO and 7.32 mg/L +/- 0.75 in IM) was more than twice as high as that of R-ketoprofen (2.55 mg/L +/- 0.99 in PO and 3.23 mg/L +/- 0.70 in IM), and the terminal half-life was three times longer for S-ketoprofen (3.40 h +/- 0.91 in PO and 2.89 h +/- 0.85 in IM) than R-ketoprofen (1.1 h +/- 0.90 in PO and 0.75 h +/- 0.48 in IM). The mean (+/- SD) relative bioavailability (PO compared to IM) was 83 +/- 20% and 63 +/- 23% for S-ketoprofen and R-ketoprofen, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Although some minor differences were detected in the ketoprofen enantiomer concentrations in plasma after PO and IM administration, they are probably not relevant in clinical use. Thus, the pharmacological effects of racemic ketoprofen should be comparable after intramuscular and oral routes of administration in growing pigs.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Stereochemistry, Enantiomer, Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Anti-inflammatory, Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, Bioavailability, Racemic mixture


Curcumin revealed various health-beneficial properties in numerous studies. However its bioavailability is low due to its limited intestinal uptake and rapid metabolism. The aim of our project was to develop novel curcumin formulations with improved oral bioavailability and to study their safety as well as potential sex-differences.

Concepts: Cultural studies, Bioavailability