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Concept: Bikini waxing


Excessive hair is undesirable and represents both a social and emotional burden, especially among females. Laser hair removal (LHR) has gained popularity in the past 2 decades. It is a common practice to instruct patients not to pluck or wax their hair before undergoing LHR; only shaving is allowed to improve the efficacy of the LHR.

Concepts: Wax, Bikini waxing, Hair removal, Laser hair removal, Depilation


Removal of trimethylamine (TMA) by 10 different living Sansevieria spp. and their dried leaf materials was studied. The results showed that living S. kirkii was the most effective plant while S. masoniana was the least effective in TMA removal. Two major pathways were involved in stomata opening and epicuticular wax on the leaf surface. In the presence of TMA, the stomata opening in Sansevieria spp. was induced and enhanced TMA removal under light conditions. Dried leaf powders of Sansevieria spp. adsorbed TMA through their waxes. Therefore, both living and non-living Sansevieria spp. can be effectively used in removal of TMA.

Concepts: Photosynthesis, Wax, Plant physiology, Bikini waxing, Leaf, Plant anatomy, Stoma, Beeswax


Obtaining the correct orientation of the stone cast in the fabrication of a nasal prosthesis is a challenging task. The current technique involves repeated trials of the waxed nasal prosthesis on the patient’s face to establish its correct position. This article proposes a simplified technique to aid in establishing the proper orientation of the stone cast in an effort to decrease the number of error corrections related to midline discrepancies during the wax sculpting stage.

Concepts: Patient, Wax, The Current, Bikini waxing, Finland, Debut albums, Stone, Article


Background:Preparation of skis prior to skiing competitions involves several individual work operations and the use of a wide variety of chemically based ski waxing products to improve the performance of the skis, including products used after skiing for wax removal and ski sole cleaning. Modern ski waxes consist mainly of petroleum-derived straight-chain aliphatic hydrocarbons, perfluoro-n-alkanes or polyfluorinated n-alkanes. The wax cleaning products contain solvents such as neat aliphatic hydrocarbons (aliphates) or a mixture with limonene. Different ski waxing work operations can result in contaminated workroom atmospheres. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the chemical exposures related to the individual ski waxing work operations by investigating the specific work operations in controlled model experiments. METHODS: Four main work operations with potential exposures were identified: (i) application of glider waxes, (ii) scraping and brushing of applied glider waxes, (iii) application of base/grip waxes, and (iv) ski sole cleaning. Aerosol particle masses were sampled using conical samplers equipped with 37-mm PVC, 5-µm pore size filters and cyclones equipped with 37-mm PVC, 0.8-µm pore size filters for the inhalable and the respirable aerosol mass fractions, respectively. For measurements of particle number concentrations, a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer was used. RESULTS: Mean aerosol particle mass concentrations of 18.6mg m(-3) and 32.2mg m(-3) were measured during application of glider wax powders in the respirable and in the inhalable aerosol mass fractions, respectively. Particle number concentration of ~900 000 particles cm(-3) was measured during application of glider wax powder products. Ski sole cleaning with products containing aliphates displayed solvent air concentrations up to 62.5 p.p.m. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that the potential exposure to generated particles during ski waxing and ski preparation is considerable, especially during work using glide wax powders.

Concepts: Chemistry, Hydrocarbon, Wax, Bikini waxing, Ski, Ski wax, Skiing, Cross-country skiing