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Concept: Bidens

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In this paper, the extracts of three-part beggarticks (Bidens tripartita) were prepared using ultrasonic assisted micelle-mediated extraction method (UAMME). Different kind of surfactants and WPC (whey protein concentrate) were applied. In the B. tripartita extracts twenty polyphenols were identified by UPLC-DAD-MS. Both aqueous and UAMME extracts mainly contained chlorogenic acid, caftaric acid and its derivatives as well as luteolin 7-O-glucoside. The luteolin was extracted with Rokanol B2 and Triton X-100. Furthermore, antioxidative properties of the extracts were analyzed with two methods: reactions with di(phenyl)-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)iminoazanium (DPPH) reagent and Follin’s method. The DPPH radical scavenging by micellar extracts was in general comparable with the antioxidant activity of conventional extracts. The most active was sample with Tego Care CG90, reducing about 73% of the radical. Obtained results confirmed that the UAMME might be an alternative method, to the liquid-liquid or solid-liquid extraction, of obtaining specified extracts rich in active compounds. Selecting a suitable surfactant may thus provide the expected composition of the extract.

Concepts: Antioxidant, Whey protein, Coffee, Surfactant, Micelle, Extraction, Bidens, Bidens tripartita

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To determine whether the living hyperaccumulator plants and their straws have the same effects on the growth and heavy metal accumulation of common plants, two pot experiments (intercropping experiment and straw mulch experiment) were conducted to study the effects of living hyperaccumulator plants (Solanum photeinocarpum, Tagetes erecta, Galinsoga parviflora and Bidens pilosa) and their straws on the growth and cadmium (Cd) accumulation of common plant Cyphomandra betacea seedlings. Intercropping with T. erecta or B. pilosa promoted the growth of C. betacea seedlings compared with the monoculture, while intercropping with S. photeinocarpum or G. parviflora inhibited that. Intercropping with S. photeinocarpum decreased the Cd contents in the roots and shoots of C. betacea seedlings compared with the monoculture, but intercropping with the other plants did not. In the straw mulch experiment, the straw of S. photeinocarpum or T. erecta promoted the growth of C. betacea seedlings compared with the control, while the straw of G. parviflora or B. pilosa did not. The straw of S. photeinocarpum or T. erecta decreased the Cd contents in the shoots of C. betacea seedlings, and the straw of G. parviflora or B. pilosa increased the shoot Cd contents. Thus, intercropping with S. photeinocarpum and applying S. photeinocarpum or T. erecta straw can reduce the Cd uptake of C. betacea.

Concepts: Solanum, Plant morphology, The Roots, Bidens, Mulch, Bidens pilosa, Tagetes erecta, Galinsoga parviflora

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Bidens pilosa L, belonging to the family of Acanthaceae, has been used as an anticancer medicine in folk in China. In our preliminary experiments, the petroleum ether extract from B. pilosa showed good cytotoxic activity to human lung cancer A549 cell. However, to date, it’s lack of the further study on antitumor effect, mechanism and active substances composition of the petroleum ether extract of B. pilosa.

Concepts: Cancer, Metastasis, Oncology, Lung cancer, Carboplatin, Paclitaxel, Bidens, Bidens pilosa

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This study is focused on the concentration of fermented broth from Phoma sp. to increase its herbicidal activity. For this purpose, biomolecules produced by submerged fermentation using Phoma sp. were concentrated by hollow fiber microfiltration membranes. The membrane feed was separated into two streams (retentate and permeate) and the crude broth was concentrated to 10, 30, 50, 70 and 90% (relative to the initial volume). The retentate samples were submitted to bioassays (triplicate) for evaluating their phytotoxic effects on five young leaves of species of Cucumis sativus and also on pre-emergence of weeds as Bidens pilosa and Amaranthus retroflexus. The highest herbicidal activity was 80.7% obtained for a concentration of 30% in the retentate fraction. At this condition, the bioherbicide presented severe damage symptoms on the detached leaves of Cucumis sativus if compared to the crude fermented broth. In the pre-emergence of B. pilosa and A. retroflexus, 100% control was obtained for assays performed in a germination chamber. For greenhouse assays using the substrate, the control rate of A. retroflexus was dependent of concentration of bioherbicide. The promising results achieved in the research with membrane separation process allow us to propose and develop further studies for evaluating this technology in the concentration of other metabolites produced by fermentation which also have bioherbicidal activity.

Concepts: Metabolism, Chemical engineering, Fermentation, Separation process, Membrane, Bidens, Bidens pilosa

0

Research of natural products from traditionally used medicinal plants to fight against the human ailments is fetching attention of researchers worldwide. Bidens pilosa Linn. var. Radiata (Asteraceae) is well known for its folkloric medicinal use against various diseases from many decades. Mizoram, North East India, has high plant diversity and the use of this plant as herbal medicine is deep rooted in the local tribes. The present study was executed to understand the pharmacological potential of B. pilosa leaves extract.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Medicine, Plant, Ayurveda, Root, Herbalism, Bidens, Bidens pilosa

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This study evaluated the mechanisms involved in the chemopreventive effects of a mucoadhesive formulation (FITOPROT), containing curcuminoids from Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae) and Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae) extract, against 5-FU-induced cellular toxicity using an in vitro oral mucositis model.

Concepts: Chemotherapy, Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, Mucositis, Curcuma, Turmeric, Zingiberaceae, Bidens, Bidens pilosa

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Two Bidens species (Bidens pilosa and B. bipinnata) that originate from America have been introduced widely in pan-tropics, with the former regarded as a noxious invasive weed whereas the latter naturalized as a plant resource. Whether the two species exhibit different effects on the belowground system remains rarely studied. This study was conducted to investigate soil microbial carbon © utilization, enzyme activities and available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents under the two species in a subtropical garden soil of southern China under different levels of light intensity. Results showed that the microbial C utilization and enzyme activities were not significantly different under the two species, implying that the strong invasiveness of B. pilosa could not be due to the plant-soil microbe interactions, at least plant-induced alterations of microbial community function to utilize C substrates. Alternatively, available soil nitrogen and potassium contents were significantly higher under B. pilosa than under B. bipinnata in full sun, indicating that the strong invasiveness of B. pilosa could result from rapid nutrient mobilizations by B. pilosa. However, the differences turned non-significant as light intensity decreased, suggesting that light availability could substantially alter the plant effects on soil nutrient mobilizations.

Concepts: Archaea, Bacteria, Enzyme, Eukaryote, Plant, Soil, Invasive species, Bidens

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Phytoremediation with the use of hyperaccumulating plant species to remove excess trace metals from contaminated soil and water is considered a cost-effective non-invasive technique. Over 400 plant taxa worldwide have been identified as natural hyperaccumulators, but only very few are reported to hyperaccumulate Cd. Bidens pilosa L. is a newly found, promising Cd hyperaccumulator, although its potential to accumulate Cd and mechanism of this process are not yet well known. This paper was aimed at exploring hyperaccumulation capacity of B. pilosa for Cd, and its translocation behavior related to cell membrane permeability. The highest Cd concentration in shoots of B. pilosa grown in soil was 405.91 mg kg(-1) and of that cultured in nutrient solution 1651.68 mg kg(-1), indicating very high accumulation potential. Cd concentrations in the root, stem, leaf, and shoot of B. pilosa cultured in nutrient solution were all much higher than those in soil, while biomass development was considerably lower. This resulted in lesser differences between Cd maximum accumulation loads in the shoot (462 and 365 μg pot(-1)) and in the root (100 and 96 μg pot(-1)) of B. pilosa grown in solution and in soil, respectively. Relative electric conductivity (REC), K(+) relative permeability ratio, and MDA (malondialdehyde) contents, which are major indices expressing cell membrane permeability, appeared to be closely related to Cd translocation and accumulation. The relative molecular mechanism of Cd accumulation/translocation in B. pilosa was found of importance and needs to be elucidated.

Concepts: Cell membrane, Concentration, Soil, Plant stem, Phytoremediation, Bidens, Relative permeability, Bidens pilosa

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Berberine is a natural herbicidal alkaloid from Coptis chinensis Franch. Here we characterized its herbicidal spectrum, absorption and transportation in plant, and the possible mechanism. Berberine showed no effect on the germination of the 10 tested plants. The IC50 values of berberine on the primary root length and fresh weight of the 10 tested plants ranged from 2.91 to 9.79 mg L-1 and 5.76 to 35.07 mg L-1, respectively. Berberine showed a similar herbicidal effect to Bidens pilosa as the commercial naturally derived herbicide cinmethylin. HPLC and fluorescence analysis revealed that berberine was mainly absorbed by B. pilosa root and transported through vascular bundle acropetally. Enzyme activity studies, GC-MS analysis, SEM and TEM observations indicated that berberine might firstly function on cell membrane indicated by variation of the IUFA percent and then cause POD, PPO, and SOD activity changes and cellular structure deformity, which was eventually expressed as the decrease of cell adaptation ability and abnormal cell function and may even result in cell death. Environmental safety evaluation tests revealed that berberine was low in toxicity to Brachydanio rerio. These indicate that berberine has potential to be a bioherbicide and/or a lead molecule for new herbicides.

Concepts: Protein, Enzyme, Cell membrane, Plant, Medicinal plants, Herbicide, Bidens, Bidens pilosa

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This study aimed to determine the total antioxidant capacity of the essential oil (EO) of leaves of Bidens pilosa (Linn. Var. Radita) used as protectant of stored grains in Northern Cameroon. EO was characterized by GC-FID, antioxidant activity (AA) was determined by combining: evaluation of radical-scavenging activity, reducing power (RP) and co-oxidation of β-carotene methods. Tests were carried out on crude and stored EO kept for two weeks at 31.48 ± 2.88°C and 58.56 ± 6.78% relative humidity. These conditions are the same as those of grain storage. GC analyses enabled the identification of 27 compounds, representing around 97.57% of the total oil contents. The major constituents of the EO were α-pinene (14.7%), ε-caryophyllene (13.5), and β-ocimene (12.8%). The AA of the crude and stored EO are proportional to the concentrations and time of exposition. Exposed at the day light, this EO inhibit 77.4-18.69% for the DPPH system, 59.55-19.14% for RP method and 91.88-21.8% for β-carotene-linoleate model system, respectively, from crude and 15 days storage EO at 20 mg L(-1). For the EC50 values, β-carotene method is excellent and in the decreasing order of DPPH method, PR with 2.52 mg L(-1), 2.77 mg L(-1) and 4.13 mg L(-1), respectively, for the crude oil. The ET50 were 1.59 days for the RP method and 2.88 days DPPH system and β-carotene-linoleate model system at 20 mg L(-1). These results showed that the EO of B. pilosa leaves exhibits AA that might be an added value for this EO preventing stored products from pest attacks.

Concepts: Antioxidant, Relative humidity, Bidens