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Concept: Biceps brachii muscle


The effects of protein supplementation on muscle thickness and strength seem largely dependent on its composition. The current study aimed at comparing the impact of an oral supplementation with vegetable Pea protein (NUTRALYS®) vs. Whey protein and Placebo on biceps brachii muscle thickness and strength after a 12-week resistance training program.

Concepts: Clinical trial, Biceps curl, Scapula, Placebo, Muscle, Triceps brachii muscle, Biceps brachii muscle


Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are a burdensome condition due to potential surgical requirements and increased risk of long term debilitation. Previous studies indicate that muscle forces play an important role in the development of ligamentous loading, yet these studies have typically used cadaveric models considering only the knee-spanning quadriceps, hamstrings and gastrocnemius muscle groups. Using a musculoskeletal modelling approach, we investigated how lower-limb muscles produce and oppose key tibiofemoral reaction forces and moments during the weight acceptance phase of unanticipated sidestep cutting. Muscles capable of opposing (or controlling the magnitude of) the anterior shear force and the external valgus moment at the knee are thought to be have the greatest potential for protecting the anterior cruciate ligament from injury. We found the best muscles for generating posterior shear to be the soleus, biceps femoris long head and medial hamstrings, providing up to 173N, 111N and 77N of force directly opposing the anterior shear force. The valgus moment was primarily opposed by the gluteus medius, gluteus maximus and piriformis, with these muscles providing contributions of up to 32 Nm, 19 Nm and 21 Nm towards a knee varus moment, respectively. Our findings highlight key muscle targets for ACL preventative and rehabilitative interventions.

Concepts: Biceps brachii muscle, Extension, Energy, Cruciate ligament, Muscle, Force, Anterior cruciate ligament, Knee


McAllister, MJ, Schilling, BK, Hammond, KG, Weiss, LW, and Farney, TM. Effect of grip width on electromyographic activity during the upright row. J Strength Cond Res 27(1): 181-187, 2013-The upright row (URR) is commonly used to develop the deltoid and upper back musculature. However, little information exists concerning muscle recruitment during variations of this exercise. Sixteen weight-trained men completed 2 repetitions each in the URR with 3 grip conditions: 50, 100, and 200% of the biacromial breadth (BAB). The load was the same for all grip conditions and was equal to 85% of the 1RM determined at 100% BAB. Repeated measures analyses of variance were used to compare the maximal activity of the anterior deltoid (AD), lateral deltoid (LD), posterior deltoid (PD), upper trapezius (UT), middle trapezius (MT), and biceps brachii (BB) during the 3 grip widths for eccentric and concentric actions. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were noted in concentric muscle activity for LD (p < 0.001) and PD (p < 0.001), and in eccentric muscle activity for AD (p = 0.023), LD (p < 0.001), UT (p < 0.001), MT (p < 0.001), and BB (p = 0.003). Bonferroni post hoc analysis revealed significant pairwise differences in the concentric actions from the LD (50% vs. 200% BAB and 100% vs. 200% BAB) and PD (50% vs. 200% BAB and 100% vs. 200% BAB), and eccentric actions of the LD (all comparisons), UT (all comparisons), MT (50% vs. 200% BAB and 100% vs. 200% BAB), and BB (50% vs. 200% BAB), with large-to-very-large effect sizes (ESs). Moderate-to-large ESs were noted for several nonsignificant comparisons. The main findings of this investigation are increased deltoid and trapezius activity with increasing grip width, and correspondingly less BB activity. Therefore, those who seek to maximize involvement of the deltoid and trapezius muscles during the URR should use a wide grip.

Concepts: Muscle contraction, Biceps brachii muscle, Muscles of the upper limb, Glenohumeral joint, Deltoid muscle, Electromyography, Clavicle, Muscle


BACKGROUND: Since the 18th century, the existence of ulnar nerve innervation of the medial head of the triceps brachii muscle has been controversial. The evidence for or against such innervation has been based on macroscopic dissection, an unsuitable method for studying intraneural topography or intramuscular branching. The study of smaller specimens (embryos or fetuses) by means of serial histologic sections may resolve the controversy. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: Using fetal specimens and histology we determined the contributions of the ulnar and radial nerves to innervation of the triceps brachii muscle. METHODS: We histologically examined 15 embryonic and fetal arms. Radial nerve branches obtained from six adult arms were analyzed immunohistochemically to determine motor fiber content. RESULTS: The medial head of the triceps brachii muscle was always innervated by the radial nerve (ulnar collateral branch). The branches seeming to leave the ulnar nerve at elbow level were the continuation of the radial nerve that had joined the ulnar nerve sheath via a connection in the axillary region. Immunohistochemistry revealed motor and nonmotor fibers in this radial nerve branch. CONCLUSIONS: A connection between the radial and ulnar nerves sometimes may exist, resulting in an apparent ulnar nerve origin of muscular branches to the medial head of the triceps, even though in all our specimens the fibers could be traced back to the radial nerve. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Before performing or suggesting new muscle and nerve transpositions using this apparent ulnar innervation, the real origin should be confirmed to avoid failure.

Concepts: Radial sulcus, Ulnar nerve, Brachial plexus, Nerve, Muscle, Biceps brachii muscle, Triceps brachii muscle, Radial nerve


/st> The influence of the muscular response elicited by neurostimulation on the success rate of interscalene block using a catheter (ISC) is unknown. In this investigation, we compared the success rate of ISC placement as indicated by biceps or deltoid, triceps, or both twitches.

Concepts: Muscles of the upper limb, Muscle, Triceps brachii muscle, Biceps brachii muscle


Although mechanomyography (MMG) reflects local vibrations from contracting muscle fibers, it also includes bulk movement: deformation in global soft tissue around measuring points. To distinguish between them, we compared the multi-channel MMG of resting muscle, which dominantly reflected the bulk movement caused by arterial pulsations, to that of the contracting muscle. The MMG signals were measured at five points around the upper arms of 10 male subjects during resting and during isometric ramp contraction from 5% to 85% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the biceps brachii muscle. The characteristics of bulk movement were defined as the amplitude distribution and phase relation among the five MMG signals. The bulk movement characteristics during the rest state were not necessarily the same among the subjects. However, below 30Hz, each subject’s characteristics remained the same from the rest state (0% MVC) to the contracting state (80% MVC), at which the bulk movement mainly originates from muscle contraction activity. Results show that the MMG of the low frequency domain (<30Hz) includes bulk movement depending on the mechanical deformation characteristics of each subject's body, for a wide range of muscle contraction intensities.

Concepts: Biceps curl, Scapula, Phase, Triceps brachii muscle, Muscle contraction, Biceps brachii muscle, Muscle


The aim of this study was to compare different endurance parameters of elbow extensors between senior and junior athletes. A group of 23 junior (16.2±0.8years, BMI 21.8±2.9 kg/m2) and 16 senior athletes (23.1±6.2y, BMI 23.6±4.2 kg/m2) volunteered for the study. Strength measurements were performed on the isoacceleration dynamometer (5 sets of 10 maximal elbow extensions, 1 min resting period between each set). The following strength parameters were measured: maximal strength (MS), endurance strength (ES), fatigue rate (FR) and decrease in strength (DS). Both arms triceps brachii muscle mass (MM) was calculated using a series of cross-sectional images of upper arms obtained by the MRI. Triceps brachii muscle mass for both arms in senior athletes showed significantly higher values (1286.9±323.7 g) compared to young athletes (948.9±171.1 g, p<0.01). ES was 50% higher in seniors, while FR was 10% higher in juniors. MS was 35% higher in seniors, but no difference was discovered when this parameter was expressed in relation to muscle mass. DS was significantly different between juniors and seniors, except in absolute values. No significant correlation was found between triceps brachii muscle mass and FR or DS. Different values of strength decrease throughout multiple contractions could be attributed to different characteristics of various sports.

Concepts: Ulna, Elbow, Triceps brachii muscle, Biceps brachii muscle


This case study examined body composition changes of a cerebral palsy (CP) athlete, in the 12 weeks prior to the London 2012 Paralympic Games. The aim was to monitor body composition of an athlete in preparation for the London Paralympic Games as part of the optimisation of performance. Within a 12 week period, body composition assessments were completed alongside an incremental 7×200 m swimming performance test, each separated by 6 weeks. One ISAK trained anthropometrist recorded body mass, sum of 8 skinfold thicknesses (biceps, triceps, subscapular, iliac crest, supraspinale, abdominal, front thigh and medial calf), girths (arm, waist, hips and calf), alongside calculations of mid upper arm muscle circumference (MUAMC). With the athlete’s non-affected side being the left side, additional measurements of arm and calf circumference, bicep and triceps skinfold and MUAMC were also assessed. Sum of 8 skinfolds fluctuated over weeks 1, 6 and 12 with 65.8 mm, 60.7 mm and 63.0 mm respectively. Arm circumference in the dominant left arm increased in the 12 week period 29.7 cm, 29.4 cm and 30.5 cm respectively, with the non-dominant right arm maintaining arm circumference over the same period. Performance in the final 200 m of the incremental performance test improved at each time point. 1.2% improvement in performance was noted between weeks 1 and 6 and a 2.1% improvement between weeks 6 and 12. A total performance improvement of 3.2% was noted from the start to end of the 12 week period. This case study highlights in a CP athlete, performance and body composition changes in the lead into major competition. There was little change in body composition but improvements in performance. This suggests that minimal body fat is not critical in CP swimming performance. However, the athlete maintained muscle mass which may suggest that functional mass is more an indicator of performance and provides a direction for future work.

Concepts: International Paralympic Committee, Biceps brachii muscle, Adipose tissue, Olympic Games, Human anatomy, Muscle, 2012 Summer Paralympics, Paralympic Games


This study investigated the changes in muscular activity and tissue oxygenation while lifting and lowering a load of 20, 40, 60 or 80 % of one repetition maximum (1RM) with elbow flexor muscles until failure. The surface electromyogram (EMG) was recorded in biceps brachii (BB), brachioradialis (BRD) and triceps brachii (TB). For BB, a tissue oxygenation index (TOI) and a normalized total hemoglobin index (nTHI) were recorded by near-infrared spectroscopy. The number of repetitions decreased with the increase in load (P < 0.001), and the four loading conditions induced a decrease in MVC force immediately after failure (P < 0.001). The average of rectified EMG amplitude (aEMG) of elbow flexors increased for all loads during muscle shortening (SHO) and lengthening (LEN) phases of the movement (P < 0.05), except for the 80 % load during LEN phase. At failure, the aEMG was greater during the SHO than the LEN phase (P < 0.05), except for the 20 % load. TOI decreased for all loads and phases (P < 0.05) but less (P < 0.01) for the 20 % than 60 and 80 % loads (P < 0.01), and for LEN compared with SHO phase. At failure, TOI was negatively associated with aEMG during the SHO (r 2 = 0.99) and LEN (r 2 = 0.82) phases, while TOI and aEMG were positively associated with load magnitude (r 2 > 0.90) in both movement phases. This study emphasizes the influence of load magnitude and movement phase (SHO and LEN) on neuromuscular and oxydative adjustments during movements that involve lifting and lowering a load until failure.

Concepts: Extension, Brachioradialis, Elbow, Flexion, Flexor muscle, Muscle, Triceps brachii muscle, Biceps brachii muscle


Many of the major locomotor transitions during the evolution of Archosauria, the lineage including crocodiles and birds as well as extinct Dinosauria, were shifts from quadrupedalism to bipedalism (and vice versa). Those occurred within a continuum between more sprawling and erect modes of locomotion and involved drastic changes of limb anatomy and function in several lineages, including sauropodomorph dinosaurs. We present biomechanical computer models of two locomotor extremes within Archosauria in an analysis of joint ranges of motion and the moment arms of the major forelimb muscles in order to quantify biomechanical differences between more sprawling, pseudosuchian (represented the crocodile Crocodylus johnstoni) and more erect, dinosaurian (represented by the sauropodomorph Mussaurus patagonicus) modes of forelimb function. We compare these two locomotor extremes in terms of the reconstructed musculoskeletal anatomy, ranges of motion of the forelimb joints and the moment arm patterns of muscles across those ranges of joint motion. We reconstructed the three-dimensional paths of 30 muscles acting around the shoulder, elbow and wrist joints. We explicitly evaluate how forelimb joint mobility and muscle actions may have changed with postural and anatomical alterations from basal archosaurs to early sauropodomorphs. We thus evaluate in which ways forelimb posture was correlated with muscle leverage, and how such differences fit into a broader evolutionary context (i.e. transition from sprawling quadrupedalism to erect bipedalism and then shifting to graviportal quadrupedalism). Our analysis reveals major differences of muscle actions between the more sprawling and erect models at the shoulder joint. These differences are related not only to the articular surfaces but also to the orientation of the scapula, in which extension/flexion movements in Crocodylus (e.g. protraction of the humerus) correspond to elevation/depression in Mussaurus. Muscle action is highly influenced by limb posture, more so than morphology. Habitual quadrupedalism in Mussaurus is not supported by our analysis of joint range of motion, which indicates that glenohumeral protraction was severely restricted. Additionally, some active pronation of the manus may have been possible in Mussaurus, allowing semi-pronation by a rearranging of the whole antebrachium (not the radius against the ulna, as previously thought) via long-axis rotation at the elbow joint. However, the muscles acting around this joint to actively pronate it may have been too weak to drive or maintain such orientations as opposed to a neutral position in between pronation and supination. Regardless, the origin of quadrupedalism in Sauropoda is not only linked to manus pronation but also to multiple shifts of forelimb morphology, allowing greater flexion movements of the glenohumeral joint and a more columnar forelimb posture.

Concepts: Humerus, Archosaur, Bipedalism, Prosauropoda, Biceps brachii muscle, Joints, Shoulder, Dinosaur