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Concept: Beryllium oxide


Reactive dynamics simulations with the reactive force field (ReaxFF) were performed in NVE ensembles to study the sintering of two solid calcium oxide (CaO) particles with and without CO(2) chemisorption. The simulated sintering conditions included starting adsorption temperatures at 1000 K and 1500 K and particle separation distances of 0.3 and 0.5 nm. The results revealed that the expansion of sorbent particles during CO(2) chemisorption was attributed to the sintering of two CaO-CaO particles. Increasing the adsorption temperature resulted in more particle expansion and sintering. The shorter the distance between two particles, the faster the rate of sintering during CO(2) adsorption. A detailed analysis on atom spatial variations revealed that the sorbent particles with a larger separation distance had a larger CO(2) uptake because of less sintering incurred. The chemisorptions of CO(2) on CaO particles sintered at high adsorption temperatures were also simulated to mimic the process of sorbent regeneration. It was found that regeneration would be more difficult for sintered particles than for fresh particles. In addition, a possible sintering barrier, magnesium oxide (MgO), was introduced to prevent CaO particles from sintering during CO(2) chemisorption. It was found that the MgO particles could reduce the sintering of CaO particles during CO(2) chemisorption. Simulation results from this study provided some guidelines on synthesizing or selecting sorbents with less sintering effect for multiple CO(2) adsorption-regeneration cycles.

Concepts: Magnesium, Calcium, Oxide, Oxides, Calcium oxide, Magnesium oxide, Beryllium oxide, Strontium oxide


The composition of a CaO-rich silicate bioglass (BG_Ca-Mix, in mol%: 2.3 Na2O; 2.3 K2O; 45.6 CaO; 2.6 P2O5; 47.2 SiO2) was modified by replacing a fixed 10mol% of CaO with MgO or SrO or fifty-fifty MgO-SrO. The thermal behaviour of the modified glasses was accurately evaluated via differential thermal analysis (DTA), heating microscopy and direct sintering tests. The presence of MgO and/or SrO didn’t interfere with the thermal stability of the parent glass, since all the new glasses remained completely amorphous after sintering (treatment performed at 753°C for the glass with MgO; at 750°C with SrO; at 759°C with MgO and SrO). The sintered samples achieved good mechanical properties, with a Young’s modulus ranging between 57.9±6.7 for the MgO-SrO modified composition and 112.6±8.0GPa for the MgO-modified one. If immersed in a simulated body fluid (SBF), the modified glasses after sintering retained the strong apatite forming ability of the parent glass, in spite of the presence of MgO and/or SrO. Moreover, the sintered glasses, tested with MLO-Y4 osteocytes by means of a multi-parametrical approach, showed a good bioactivity in vitro, since neither the glasses nor their extracts caused any negative effect on cell viability or any inhibition on cell growth. The best results were achieved by the MgO-modified glasses, both BGMIX_Mg and BGMIX_MgSr, which were able to exert a strong stimulating effect on the cell growth, thus confirming the beneficial effect of MgO on the glass bioactivity.

Concepts: Oxide, Oxides, Glass, Calcium oxide, Common oxide glass components, Magnesium oxide, Beryllium oxide, Strontium oxide


Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and thermoluminescence (TL) are similar techniques widely used in radiation dosimetry. The main difference between these techniques is the stimulus to induce luminescence emission: TL technique uses thermal stimulation, whereas OSL uses optical stimulation. One of the main intrinsic characteristics of the OSL technique is the possibility of reading several times the dosimetric materials with a negligible loss of signal. In the case of BeO, recent studies have shown that TL stimulation up to 250°C does not affect its OSL signal. Taking the advantages of dosimetric characteristics of BeO combined with both techniques, in this study, we demonstrated the possibility of measuring accumulated and single doses in the same BeO-based detector in order to use it to improve individual monitoring of radiation workers exposed to X-ray or gamma-ray fields. Single doses were measured using TL technique by heating the detector up to 250°C, whereas accumulated doses were estimated using OSL technique in the same detector in a relatively short time of optical stimulation. The detectors were exposed to two energies: 28keV X-rays and 1.25MeV Co-60 gamma rays. The doses estimated by OSL and TL of BeO (Thermalox 995) were compared with those obtained with LiF (TLD-100) and recorded with a calibrated ionization chamber. The results indicate that combined OSL and TL signals of BeO detectors can provide additional information of accumulated dose, with additional exploration of the advantages of both techniques, such as speed in readouts with OSL, and double-check the doses using TL and OSL intensities from BeO.

Concepts: Ionizing radiation, X-ray, Electromagnetic radiation, Gamma ray, Calcium oxide, Magnesium oxide, Beryllium oxide, IARC Group 1 carcinogens


In this paper, we investigate the effect of SrO substitution for CaO in 50P2O5-10Na2-(40-x)CaO-xSrO glass system (x from 0 to 40) on the thermal and structural properties and also on the glass reactivity in simulated body fluid (SBF) in order to find new glass candidates for biomedical glass fibers. The addition of SrO at the expense of CaO seems to restrain the leaching of phosphate ions in the solution limiting the reduction of the solution pH. We observed the formation of an apatite layer at the surface of the glasses when in contact with SBF. SrO and MgO were found in the apatite layer of the strontium ion-containing glasses, the concentration of which increases with an increase of SrO content. We think that it is the presence of MgO and SrO in the layer which limits the leaching of phosphate in the solution and thus the glass dissolution in SBF.

Concepts: Chemistry, Oxide, Glass, Calcium oxide, Fiberglass, Magnesium oxide, Beryllium oxide, Strontium oxide