SciCombinator

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Concept: Beriberi

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Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) has greater efficacy for weight loss in obese patients than gastric banding (BAND) surgery. We hypothesise that this may result from different effects on food hedonics via physiological changes secondary to distinct gut anatomy manipulations.

Concepts: Obesity, Bariatric surgery, Gastric bypass surgery, Bariatrics, Duodenum, Surgical procedures, Beriberi, The Band

112

Patients with chronic heart failure (HF) secondary to left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) are frequently deficient in vitamin D. Low vitamin D levels are associated with a worse prognosis.

Concepts: Vitamin D, Blood, Cardiology, Heart, Ventricle, Mitral valve, Left ventricle, Beriberi

95

Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) is an effective treatment for morbid obesity, but might aggravate gastrointestinal complaints and food intolerance. The long-term prevalence of these symptoms has not been well studied.

Concepts: Nutrition, Obesity, Malnutrition, Bariatric surgery, Gastric bypass surgery, Bariatrics, Duodenum, Beriberi

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Background  Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery is very effective in reducing excess body weight and improving glucose homeostasis in obese subjects. Changes in the pattern of gut hormone secretion are thought to play a major role, but the mechanisms leading to both changed hormone secretion and beneficial effects remain unclear. Specifically, it is not clear whether changes in the number of hormone-secreting enteroendocrine cells, or changes in the releasing stimuli, or both, are important. Methods  We estimated numbers of enteroendocrine cells after immunohistochemical staining in fixed tissue samples from rats at 10-11 months after RYGB. Key Results  Numbers of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) (L-cells, co-expressing peptide YY (PYY)), cholecystokinin (CCK), neurotensin, and 5-HT-immunoreactive cells were significantly increased in the Roux and common limbs, but not the biliopancreatic limb in RYGB rats compared with sham-operated, obese rats fed high-fat diet, and chow-fed controls. This increase was mostly accounted for by general hyperplasia of all intestinal wall layers of the nutrient-perfused Roux and common limbs, and less to increased density of expression. The number of ghrelin cells in the bypassed stomach was not different among the three groups. Conclusions & Inferences  The findings suggest that the number of enteroendocrine cells increases passively as the gut adapts, and that the increased total number of L- and I-cells is likely to contribute to the higher circulating levels of GLP-1, PYY, and CCK, potentially leading to suppression of food intake and stimulation of insulin secretion. Whether changes in releasing stimuli also contribute to altered circulating levels will have to be determined in future studies.

Concepts: Nutrition, Insulin, Obesity, Bariatric surgery, Gastric bypass surgery, Bariatrics, Duodenum, Beriberi

28

Many obese subjects suffer from an increased hedonic drive to consume palatable foods, i.e., hedonic hunger, and often show unfavorable dietary habits. Here, we investigated changes in the hedonic hunger and dietary habits after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery.

Concepts: Nutrition, Obesity, Bariatric surgery, Gastric bypass surgery, Bariatrics, Duodenum, Surgical procedures, Beriberi

28

The acquisition of cognitive, sensory-motor and social emotional functions depend on a proper development of the Central Nervous System (CNS). This set of functions, known as intelligence, allows a better adaptation to the environment. In the last decades, an increase in the average of intelligence has been reported. However, such an increase cannot be observed in an equivalent way in economically and social underprivileged regions. Children from those regions are in great risk of being affected by mental retardation or impaired cognitive development. In later life they will, probably, be unable to transform and improve themselves and their communities, perpetuating the poverty of the region. Therefore, knowledge of factors involved in CNS development is a matter of health closely related to social improvement. Malnutrition throughout pregnancy and breastfeeding is clearly identifiable as a cause of damage in CNS development. Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) is a micronutrient important to the growth and maturity of the CNS. Thiamine shortcoming may affect 50% of pregnant women. Thiamine function in cerebral development is still not well known. There is a gap in the literature regarding systematical research about the blood thiamine concentration throughout the periods of gestation and breastfeeding. These studies are relevant in populations with a high level of nutritional vulnerability, because in a follow up offspring cognitive exam they could reveal if the maternal thiamine deficiency is related to child CNS impairment. This paper introduce the hypothesis that thiamine shortcoming during pregnancy and breastfeeding is directly related to cognitive impairment of child. Data about the neurophysiological role of thiamine, consequences of its shortcoming in experimental models, populations under the risk of thiamine shortcoming are presented. The hypothesis that maternal thiamine shortcoming causes damage related to child cognitive development needs to be considered. Thus, thiamine shortcoming during gestation and breastfeeding and its effects on children must be studied in many populations in order to know the magnitude of the problem and to indicate actions to overcome it.

Concepts: Central nervous system, Nervous system, Pregnancy, Embryo, Breastfeeding, Vitamin, Thiamine, Beriberi

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OBJECTIVES: The RCPA Quality Assurance Program (RCPA QAP) offers monthly proficiency testing for vitamins A, B1, B6, β-carotene, C and E to laboratories worldwide. A review of results submitted for the whole blood vitamin B1/B6 sub-program revealed a wide dispersion. Here we describe the results of a methodology survey for vitamins B1 and B6. Design and Methods A questionnaire was sent to thirteen laboratories. Eleven laboratories were returning QAP results for vitamin B1 (thiamine pyrophosphate) and five were returning results for vitamin B6 (pyridoxal-5-phosphate). RESULTS: All nine respondents provided a clinical service for vitamin B1 and B6. HPLC with fluorescence detection was the most common method principle. For vitamin B1, six respondents used a commercial assay whilst three used in-house methods; whole blood was the matrix for all. For vitamin B6, five respondents used commercial assays and four used in-house assays. The choice of matrix for vitamin B6 varied with three respondents using whole blood and five using plasma for analysis. Sample preparation incorporated protein precipitation and derivatization steps. An internal standard was employed in sample preparation by only one survey respondent. CONCLUSIONS: The immediate result of this survey was the incorporation of plasma vitamin B6 into the RCPA QAP vitamin program. The absence of an internal standard in current vitamin B1 and B6 assays is a likely contributor to the wide dispersion of results seen in this program. We recommend kit manufacturers and laboratories investigate the inclusion of internal standards to correct for variability that may occur during processing.

Concepts: Vitamin, Cofactor, B vitamins, Thiamine, Vitamin B6, Beriberi, Christiaan Eijkman, Thiamine pyrophosphate

20

To compare economic and clinical outcomes between patients undergoing laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRY) or laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) with use of powered vs manual endoscopic surgical staplers.

Concepts: Obesity, Surgery, Bariatric surgery, Laparoscopic surgery, Gastric bypass surgery, Bariatrics, Duodenum, Beriberi

13

Population-based studies on the prevalence of symptoms after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery are sparse. Knowledge about possible predictors of these symptoms is important for prevention.

Concepts: Obesity, Coronary artery bypass surgery, Bariatric surgery, Gastric bypass surgery, Bariatrics, Duodenum, Surgical procedures, Beriberi