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Concept: Benign tumor

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Acquired resistance is one of the major barriers to successful cancer therapy. The development of resistance is commonly attributed to genetic heterogeneity. However, heterogeneity of drug penetration of the tumor microenvironment both on the microscopic level within solid tumors as well as on the macroscopic level across metastases may also contribute to acquired drug resistance. Here we use mathematical models to investigate the effect of drug heterogeneity on the probability of escape from treatment and the time to resistance. Specifically we address scenarios with sufficiently potent therapies that suppress growth of all preexisting genetic variants in the compartment with the highest possible drug concentration. To study the joint effect of drug heterogeneity, growth rate, and evolution of resistance, we analyze a multi-type stochastic branching process describing growth of cancer cells in multiple compartments with different drug concentrations and limited migration between compartments. We show that resistance is likely to arise first in the sanctuary compartment with poor drug penetrations and from there populate non-sanctuary compartments with high drug concentrations. Moreover, we show that only below a threshold rate of cell migration does spatial heterogeneity accelerate resistance evolution, otherwise deterring drug resistance with excessively high migration rates. Our results provide new insights into understanding why cancers tend to quickly become resistant, and that cell migration and the presence of sanctuary sites with little drug exposure are essential to this end.

Concepts: Lung cancer, Breast cancer, Brain tumor, Benign tumor, Neoplasm, Tumor, Oncology, Cancer

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Abnormal vascularization of solid tumours results in the development of microenvironments deprived of oxygen and nutrients that harbour slowly growing and metabolically stressed cells. Such cells display enhanced resistance to standard chemotherapeutic agents and repopulate tumours after therapy. Here we identify the small molecule VLX600 as a drug that is preferentially active against quiescent cells in colon cancer 3-D microtissues. The anticancer activity is associated with reduced mitochondrial respiration, leading to bioenergetic catastrophe and tumour cell death. VLX600 shows enhanced cytotoxic activity under conditions of nutrient starvation. Importantly, VLX600 displays tumour growth inhibition in vivo. Our findings suggest that tumour cells in metabolically compromised microenvironments have a limited ability to respond to decreased mitochondrial function, and suggest a strategy for targeting the quiescent populations of tumour cells for improved cancer treatment.

Concepts: DNA, Benign tumor, Neoplasm, Cellular respiration, Mitochondrion, Tumor, Oncology, Cancer

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Colloid cysts are rare congenital, intracranial neoplasms, commonly located in the third ventricle. Colloid cysts are endodermal congenital malformations. The cysts commonly range in size from 1–2 cm in diameter, although large cysts >3 cm in size have been reported. The components of the cyst include an outer fibrous capsule over an inner epithelium. The epithelium is usually a single layer of mucin-producing or ciliated cells. Such cysts contain mucoid and gelatinous material, which is positive for both Periodic acid Schiff (PAS) and mucicarmen staining. Although colloid cysts usually represent histopathologically benign neoplasms, they can result in sudden, unexpected and potentially lethal complications. The mechanism(s) of death is still a controversial subject and several mechanisms have been postulated to explain the sudden onset of severe symptoms and of fatal rapid deterioration in patients with colloid cysts. In this case, macroscopic and histological findings addressed the diagnosis of colloid cyst of the third ventricle with diffuse myocardial injury (coagulative myocytolysys or contraction band necrosis, CBN) and led us to conclude that acute cardiac arrest due to hypothalamus stimulation in the context of colloid cyst of the third ventricle was the cause of death. As the hypothalamic structures which are involved in neuroendocrine and autonomic regulation playing a key role in cardiovascular control are located close to the walls of the third ventricle which is the most frequent anatomical site of colloid cyst, this may suggest that reflex cardiac effects due to the compression of the hypothalamic cardiovascular regulatory centers by the cyst explain the sudden death in patients harboring a colloid cyst when signs of hydrocephalus or brain herniation are lacking.Virtual slidesThe virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/4915842848034158.

Concepts: Congenital disorder, Hypothalamus, Benign tumor, Myocardial infarction, Blood, Colloid cyst, Intracranial pressure, Heart

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PURPOSE: Development of a heptamethine cyanine based tumor-targeting PET imaging probe for noninvasive detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. METHODS: Tumor-specific heptamethine-cyanine DOTA conjugate complexed with Cu-64 (PC-1001) was synthesized for breast cancer imaging. In vitro cellular uptake studies were performed in the breast cancer MCF-7 and noncancerous breast epithelial MCF-10A cell lines to establish tumor specificity. In vivo time-dependent fluorescence and PET imaging of breast tumor xenografts in mice were performed. Blood clearance, biodistribution, and tumor-specific uptake and plasma binding of PC-1001 were quantified. Tumor histology (H&E staining) and fluorescence imaging were examined. RESULTS: PC-1001 displayed similar fluorescence properties (ε=82,880cm(-1)M(-1), E(x)/E(m)=750/820nm) to the parental dye. Time-dependent cellular accumulation indicated significantly higher probe uptake (>2-fold, 30min) in MCF-7 than MCF-10A cells and the uptake was observed to be mediated by organic anion transport peptides (OATPs) system. In vivo studies revealed that PC-1001 has desirable accumulation profile in tumor tissues, with tumor versus muscle uptake of about 4.3 fold at 24h and 5.8 fold at 48h post probe injections. Blood half-life of PC-1001 was observed to be 4.3±0.2h. Microscopic fluorescence imaging of harvested tumor indicated that the uptake of PC-1001 was restricted to viable rather than necrotic tumor cells. CONCLUSIONS: A highly efficient tumor-targeting PET/fluorescence imaging probe PC-1001 is synthesized and validated in vitro in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and in vivo in mice breast cancer xenograft model.

Concepts: MCF-7, Tumor, Neoplasm, In vivo, Benign tumor, Oncology, Breast cancer, Cancer

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Lipomas are common benign tumours of fat cells. In most cases, surgical excision is curative and simple to perform; however, such a procedure requires general anaesthesia and may be associated with delayed wound healing, seroma formation and nerve injury in deep and intramuscular tumours. The objective of this study was to evaluate treatment of subcutaneous, subfascial or intermuscular lipomas using intralesional steroid injections in dogs. Fifteen dogs presenting with lipomas were selected for treatment with ultrasound-guided intralesional injection of triamcinolone acetonide at a dose of 40 mg/mL. Nine subcutaneous and subfascial tumours showed a complete regression. The other lipomas decreased in diameter, achieving, in some cases, remission of discomfort and regression of lameness. Steroid injection was a relatively safe and effective treatment for lipomas in dogs; only six dogs experienced polyuria/polydipsia for about 2 weeks post-treatment.

Concepts: Al-Andalus, Excision, Injury, Triamcinolone acetonide, Anesthesia, Wound healing, Benign tumor, Surgery

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INTRODUCTION: Detection of asymptomatic adnexal tumours in postmenopausal women has increased due to wider use of diagnostic ultrasound and imaging quality improvements. Reliable methods to differentiate between benign and malignant tumours are required to avoid delays in treating ovarian cancer and to prevent unnecessary interventions for benign lesions. In the UK, the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists has issued guidance for the management of adnexal cysts in postmenopausal women, which is considered standard in routine clinical practice. The protocol utilises the Risk of Malignancy Index to assess the risk of adnexal lesion being malignant. This protocol has a relatively high intervention rate in order to avoid a delay in a cancer diagnosis. The Simple Rules Protocol designed by International Ovarian Tumour Analysis Group reports a low false-positive rate in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer without a loss of sensitivity and therefore has the potential to reduce unnecessary interventions in asymptomatic postmenopausal women with benign cysts. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: 140 postmenopausal women aged 40-80, with incidentally detected adnexal tumours on ultrasound scan will be recruited to this study. They will be randomly allocated, to be assessed and managed according to either of the two protocols under investigation. In both arms of the study the tumours will be classified into three groups: high, intermediate or low risk of malignancy. Women with high risk of malignancy will be referred for management in a tertiary cancer centre, women with low-risk tumours will be managed expectantly, while those with intermediate risk findings have surgery in their local hospital units. Analysis will be on an intention-to-treat basis. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Research ethical approval was granted by the North London Research Ethical Committee 2 (10/H0724/48). Trial results will be published according to the CONSORT statement. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Registration at http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN89034131/. ISRCTN89034131.

Concepts: Sensitivity and specificity, Benign tumor, Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, BRCA2, Ovarian cyst, Hysterectomy, Oncology, Cancer

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OBJECTIVE: To clearly define the proportions of benign vs malignant histologic findings in resected renal masses through an in-depth review of the contemporary medical data to assist in preoperative risk assessment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMed and select oncology congresses were searched for publications that identify the histologic classification of resected renal masses in a representative sample from the contemporary data: [search] incidence AND (renal cell carcinoma AND benign); incidence AND (renal tumor AND benign); percentage AND (renal cell carcinoma AND benign); limit 2003-2011. RESULTS: We identified 26 representative studies meeting the inclusion criteria and incorporating 27,272 patients. The frequency of benign tumors ranged from 7% to 33%, with most studies within a few percentage points of the mean (14.5% ± 5.2%, median 13.9%). Clear cell renal cell carcinoma occurred in 46% to 83% of patients, with a mean of 68.3% (median 61.3; SD = 11.9%). An inverse relationship between tumor size and benign pathologic features was identified in 14 of 19 (74%) studies that examined an association between tumor size and pathologic characteristics. A statistically significant correlation between clear cell renal cell carcinoma and tumor size was identified in 13 of 19 studies (63%). The accuracy of preoperative cross-sectional imaging was low in the 2 studies examining computed tomography (17%). CONCLUSION: Benign renal tumors represent ∼15% of detected surgically resected renal masses and are more prevalent among small clinical T1a lesions. Noninvasive preoperative differentiation between more and less aggressive renal masses would be an important clinical advance that could allow clinicians greater diagnostic confidence and guide patient management through improved risk stratification.

Concepts: Standard deviation, Statistics, Anatomical pathology, Tumor, Benign tumor, Oncology, Renal cell carcinoma, Cancer

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In recent studies, both tumor morphology and vascularity played an important role in differentiating breast tumors. In this article, a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system was proposed to quantify the tumor morphology of vascularity on three-dimensional (3-D) power Doppler breast ultrasound (PDUS) images. We segmented the tumor margin by the level set method and skeletonized vessels by the 3-D thinning algorithm from 3-D PDUS data to capture the B-mode and vascularity features. The B-mode features including texture, shape and ellipsoid fitting and the vascularity features containing volume, complexity, length, radius and tortuosity were used to differentiate breast tumors. In the experiment, 82 biopsy-verified lesions including 41 benign and 41 malignant lesions were used to test the performance of the proposed system. The proposed method performed well, achieving accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and Az values of 85.37% (70/82), 85.37% (35/41), 85.37% (35/41) and 0.9104, respectively.

Concepts: Brain tumor, Neoplasm, Tumor, Breast cancer, Level set method, Benign tumor, Oncology, Cancer

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Central odontogenic fibroma (COF) is a rare benign tumor that accounts for 0.1% of all odontogenic tumors. A case of COF (simple type) of the mandible in a four-year-old boy is described in this report. The patient showed asymptomatic swelling in the right inferior border of the lower jaw for one week. A panoramic radiograph showed a poorly-defined destructive unilocular radiolucent area. Cone-beam computed tomography showed expansion and perforation of the adjacent cortical bone plates. A periosteal reaction with the Codman triangle pattern was clearly visible in the buccal cortex. Since the tumor had destroyed a considerable amount of bone, surgical resection was performed. No recurrence was noted.

Concepts: Bone, Temporomandibular joint, Tomographic reconstruction, Mandible, Tumor, Oncology, Jaw, Benign tumor

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Glucose deprivation, hypoxia and acidosis are characteristic features of the central core of most solid tumours. Myofibroblasts are stromal cells present in many such solid tumours, including those of the colon, and are known to be involved in all stages of tumour progression. HMGB1 is a nuclear protein with an important role in nucleosome stabilisation and gene transcription; it is also released from immune cells and is involved in the inflammatory process. We report that the microenvironmental condition of glucose deprivation is responsible for the active release of HMGB1 from various types of cancer cell lines (HT-29, MCF-7 and A549) under normoxic conditions. Recombinant HMGB1 (10 ng/ml) triggered proliferation in myofibroblast cells via activation of PI3K and MEK1/2. Conditioned medium collected from glucose-deprived HT-29 colon cancer cells stimulated the migration and invasion of colonic myofibroblasts, and these processes were significantly inhibited by immunoneutralising antibodies to HMGB1, RAGE and TLR4, together with specific inhibitors of PI3K and MEK1/2. Our data suggest that HMGB1 released from cancer cells under glucose deprivation is involved in stimulating colonic myofibroblast migration and invasion and that this occurs through the activation of RAGE and TLR4, resulting in the activation of the MAPK and PI3K signalling pathways. Thus, HMGB1 might be released by cancer cells in areas of low glucose in solid tumours with the resulting activation of myofibroblasts and is a potential therapeutic target to inhibit solid tumour growth.

Concepts: Gene expression, Benign tumor, Immune system, Colorectal cancer, Neoplasm, Oncology, Tumor, Cancer