Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Bench


Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is increasingly being adopted as the backbone of biomedical research. With the commercialization of various affordable desktop sequencers, NGS will be reached by increasing numbers of cellular and molecular biologists, necessitating community consensus on bioinformatics protocols to tackle the exponential increase in quantity of sequence data. The current resources for NGS informatics are extremely fragmented. Finding a centralized synthesis is difficult. A multitude of tools exist for NGS data analysis; however, none of these satisfies all possible uses and needs. This gap in functionality could be filled by integrating different methods in customized pipelines, an approach helped by the open-source nature of many NGS programmes. Drawing from community spirit and with the use of the Wikipedia framework, we have initiated a collaborative NGS resource: The NGS WikiBook. We have collected a sufficient amount of text to incentivize a broader community to contribute to it. Users can search, browse, edit and create new content, so as to facilitate self-learning and feedback to the community. The overall structure and style for this dynamic material is designed for the bench biologists and non-bioinformaticians. The flexibility of online material allows the readers to ignore details in a first read, yet have immediate access to the information they need. Each chapter comes with practical exercises so readers may familiarize themselves with each step. The NGS WikiBook aims to create a collective laboratory book and protocol that explains the key concepts and describes best practices in this fast-evolving field.

Concepts: Molecular biology, Biology, Sequence, Medical research, Sustainability, Bench, Exponential growth, Wikipedia


The capability of adult and child witnesses to accurately recollect events from the past and provide reliable testimony has been hotly debated for more than 100 years. Prominent legal cases of the 1980s and 1990s sparked lengthy debates and important research questions surrounding the fallibility and general reliability of memory. But what lessons have we learned, some 35 years later, about the role of memory in the judicial system? In this review, we focus on what we now know about the consequences of the fallibility of memory for legal proceedings. We present a brief historical overview of false memories that focuses on three critical forensic areas that changed memory research: children as eyewitnesses, historic sexual abuse and eyewitness (mis)identification. We revisit some of the prominent trials of the 1980s and 1990s to not only consider the role false memories have played in judicial decisions, but also to see how this has helped us understand memory today. Finally, we consider the way in which the research on memory (true and false) has been successfully integrated into some courtroom procedures.

Concepts: Psychology, Law, Amnesia, Bench, History, Judge, Judiciary


Despite the clear demand for open data sharing, its implementation within plant science is still limited. This is, at least in part, because open data-sharing raises several unanswered questions and challenges to current research practices. In this commentary, some of the challenges encountered by plant researchers at the bench when generating, interpreting, and attempting to disseminate their data have been highlighted. The difficulties involved in sharing sequencing, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics data are reviewed. The benefits and drawbacks of three data-sharing venues currently available to plant scientists are identified and assessed: (i) journal publication; (ii) university repositories; and (iii) community and project-specific databases. It is concluded that community and project-specific databases are the most useful to researchers interested in effective data sharing, since these databases are explicitly created to meet the researchers' needs, support extensive curation, and embody a heightened awareness of what it takes to make data reuseable by others. Such bottom-up and community-driven approaches need to be valued by the research community, supported by publishers, and provided with long-term sustainable support by funding bodies and government. At the same time, these databases need to be linked to generic databases where possible, in order to be discoverable to the majority of researchers and thus promote effective and efficient data sharing. As we look forward to a future that embraces open access to data and publications, it is essential that data policies, data curation, data integration, data infrastructure, and data funding are linked together so as to foster data access and research productivity.

Concepts: Scientific method, Academic publishing, Research, Botany, Bench, Open content, Data management, Open research


Abstract The purpose of this study was to compare the effect on strength gains of two isoinertial resistance training (RT) programmes that only differed in actual concentric velocity: maximal (MaxV) vs. half-maximal (HalfV) velocity. Twenty participants were assigned to a MaxV (n = 9) or HalfV (n = 11) group and trained 3 times per week during 6 weeks using the bench press (BP). Repetition velocity was controlled using a linear velocity transducer. A complementary study (n = 10) aimed to analyse whether the acute metabolic (blood lactate and ammonia) and mechanical response (velocity loss) was different between the MaxV and HalfV protocols used. Both groups improved strength performance from pre- to post-training, but MaxV resulted in significantly greater gains than HalfV in all variables analysed: one-repetition maximum (1RM) strength (18.2 vs. 9.7%), velocity developed against all (20.8 vs. 10.0%), light (11.5 vs. 4.5%) and heavy (36.2 vs. 17.3%) loads common to pre- and post-tests. Light and heavy loads were identified with those moved faster or slower than 0.80 m·s(-1) (∼60% 1RM in BP). Lactate tended to be significantly higher for MaxV vs. HalfV, with no differences observed for ammonia which was within resting values. Both groups obtained the greatest improvements at the training velocities (≤0.80 m·s(-1)). Movement velocity can be considered a fundamental component of RT intensity, since, for a given %1RM, the velocity at which loads are lifted largely determines the resulting training effect. BP strength gains can be maximised when repetitions are performed at maximal intended velocity.

Concepts: Improve, Training, Performance, Velocity, Bench, Bench press, Repetition


Eccentric muscle actions (ECC) are characterized by muscle lengthening, despite actin-myosin crossbridge formation. Muscles acting eccentrically are capable of producing higher levels of force compared to muscles acting concentrically. The purpose of this study was to determine if ECC bench press yields greater strength than concentric (CON) as determined by one-repetition maximum (1RM). Additionally, a comparison was made examining differences in the number of repetitions to failure at different relative intensities of 1RM. Thirty healthy men (age = 24.63 + 5.6 years) were tested for 1RM in CON and ECC bench press and the number of repetitions completed at 60%, 70%, 80%, and 90% 1RM. For CON repetitions, the weight was mechanically lowered to the chest and the participant pressed it up until the elbows were fully extended. The ECC bench press consisted of lowering a barbell from a fully extended elbow position to the chest in a continuous, controlled manner for three seconds as determined by electronic metronome. Paired t-tests showed that ECC 1RM (115.99 ± 31.08 kg) was significantly (p < 0.05) greater than CON 1RM (93.56 ± 26.56 kg) and the number of repetitions completed at 90% 1RM was significantly (p < 0.05) greater in ECC (7.67 + 3.24) as compared to CON (4.57 + 2.21). There were no significant differences in number of completed repetitions during CON and ECC bench press at 60%, 70% and 80% 1RM. These data indicate that ECC actions yield increased force capabilities (∼120%) as compared to CON in the bench press and may be less prone to fatigue, especially at higher intensities. These differences suggest a need to develop unique strategies for training eccentrically.

Concepts: Heart, Muscle, Triceps brachii muscle, Muscle contraction, Muscular system, Bench, Bench press, Barbell


While governments draft law and policy to promote public health, it is through cases put before the judiciary that the implementation of law can be challenged and where its practical implications are typically determined. In this paper, we examine the role of court judgements on efforts in Australia to regulate the harmful use of alcohol.

Concepts: Law, Regulation, Separation of powers, Bench, Judge, Administrative law, Civil procedure, Judiciary


The present study aimed to investigate the influence of subjects' strength level on both the ability to maintain power output performance and the physiological and perceived exertion responses during a power training session when different rest intervals (RI) are used. Thirty-eight (18 males and 20 females) subjects were divided into a stronger or weaker group, based on their ability to produce peak power output. Testing was performed using the same protocol (5 sets of 8 repetitions with 40% of 1 repetition maximum) in the bench press throw exercise, but differing the RI between sets (1, 2 and 3 minutes). During the sessions, mechanical (peak power), physiological ([La]) and perceptual (RPE) variables were measured. In addition delayed onset muscular soreness (DOMS) 24 and 48 hours after the training session were reported. Both stronger and weaker (males and females) groups showed significant impairments in mechanical, physiological, and perceptual data when resting 1 min. Nevertheless, while stronger groups were able to sustain power output over the sets when using the 2 min RI, weaker groups needed at least 3 min to maintain power output performance. Therefore, strength level heavily influences the rest interval required during a power training session and should be taken into account when prescribing such training sessions.

Concepts: Perception, Performance, Bench, Bench press, Repetition, Delayed onset muscle soreness, Equal temperament


A gap between the theory and practice of adaptive management (AM) is revealed in judicial decisions reviewing agency adaptive management plans. This analysis of all U.S. federal court opinions published through January 1, 2015 identifies the agency practices courts find most deficient, including lack of clear objectives and processes, monitoring thresholds, and defined actions triggered by thresholds. This trio of agency shortcuts characterizes what we call “AM-lite.” Passive AM differs from active AM in its relative lack of management interventions through experimental strategies. In contrast, AM-lite is a distinctive form of passive AM that fails to provide for the iterative steps necessary to learn from management. Courts have developed a sophisticated understanding of AM and often offer instructive rather than merely critical opinions. The role of the judiciary is limited by agency discretion under U.S. administrative law. But courts have overturned some agency AM-lite practices and insisted on more rigorous analysis to ensure that the promised benefits of structured learning and fine-tuned management have a reasonable likelihood of occurring. Nonetheless, there remains a mismatch in U.S. administrative law between the flexibility demanded by adaptive management and the legal objectives of transparency, public participation, and finality. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Concepts: Federal government of the United States, Law, Bench, All rights reserved, Judge, Copyright, Law of the United States, Court


Maximal power production has been shown to be a differentiating factor between playing levels in many sports and is thus a focus of many strength and conditioning programmes. We sought to evaluate the duration for which a strategy of training with the optimal load (that maximises power output) will be effective in producing improvements in power output in the bench pull. The optimal load that produced the maximum power output in the bench pull was determined for twenty-one male university athletes who were randomly assigned to a group that trained with their optimal load or a load 10% of their one repetition maximum below the optimal load. Both groups completed two sessions per week for 4 weeks, after which their power output capabilities were reassessed. They then trained for a further 3 weeks with a load that was modified to reflect changes in their optimal load. The cohort as a whole had improved their peak power output by 4.6% (p = 0.002, d = 0.290) after 4 weeks of training, but experienced no further increase after another 3 weeks of training. There were no significant differences in the response to training between the two groups. This study suggests that improvements in power output can be realised within a few weeks when training with the optimal load, but training in such a way for a longer duration may be ineffective. Strength and conditioning coaches should consider periodizing power training to maximise gains in power output capabilities.

Concepts: Improve, Training, Bench, Transmitter power output


The purpose of this study was to compare two different periodization models in strength and power athletes. Twenty-four experienced resistance trained man were randomly assigned to either a block periodization training program (BP; age = 24.2±3.1 years, body mass = 78.5±11.0 kg, height = 177.6±4.9 cm) or to a traditional periodization program (TP; age = 26.2±6.0 years; body mass = 80.5±13.3 kg, height = 179.2±4.6). Participants in both training programs performed four-training sessions per week. Each training program consisted of the same exercises and same volume of training (total resistance lifted per session). The difference between the groups was in the manipulation of training intensity within each training phase. Strength and power testing occurred before training (PRE) and following 15 weeks (POST) of training. Magnitude-based inferences were used to compare strength and power performance between the groups. Participants in BP were more likely (79.8%) to increase the area under the force-power curve than TP. Participants in BP also demonstrated a likely positive (92.76%) decrease in the load corresponding to maximal power at the bench press compared to TP group, and a possible improvement (∼ 60%) in maximal strength and power in the bench press. No significant changes were noted between groups in lower body strength or jump power performance following the 15 week training period. Results of this study indicate that BP may enhance upper-body power expression to a greater extent than TP with equal volume, however, no differences were detected for lower body performance and body composition measures.

Concepts: Mass, Training, Difference, Strength training, The Program, Bench, Bench press