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Concept: Bell pepper


The chili pepper is a very important plant used worldwide as a vegetable, as a spice, and as an external medicine. In this work, eight different varieties of Capsicum annuum L. have been characterized by their capsaicinoids content. The chili pepper fruits were cultivated in the Comarca Lagunera region in North of Mexico. The qualitative and quantitative determination of the major and minor capsaicinoids; alkaloids responsible for the pungency level, has been performed by a validated chromatographic procedure (HPLC-DAD) after a preliminary drying step and an opportune extraction procedure. Concentrations of total capsaicinoids varied from a not detectable value for Bell pepper to 31.84 mg g-1 dried weight for Chiltepín. Samples were obtained from plants grown in experimental field and in greenhouse without temperature control, in order to evaluate temperature effect. Analysis of the two principal capsaicinoids in fruits showed that the amount of dihydrocapsaicin was always higher than capsaicin. In addition, our results showed that the content of total capsaicinoids for the varieties Serrano, Puya, Ancho, Guajillo and Bell pepper were increased with high temperature, while the content of total capsaicinoids and Scoville heat units (SHU) for the varieties De árbol and Jalapeño decreased. However, the pungency values found in this study were higher for all varieties analyzed than in other studies.

Concepts: Capsicum annuum, Capsicum, Capsaicin, Chili pepper, Scoville scale, Bell pepper, Pepper spray, Chili peppers


Chlorophyll degradation is the most obvious hallmark of leaf senescence. Phyllobilins, linear tetrapyrroles that are derived from opening of the chlorin macrocycle by the Rieske-type oxygenase PHEOPHORBIDE a OXYGENASE (PAO), are the end products of chlorophyll degradation. Phyllobilins carry defined modifications at several peripheral positions within the tetrapyrrole backbone. While most of these modifications are species-specific, hydroxylation at the C32 position is commonly found in all species analyzed to date. We demonstrate that this hydroxylation occurs in senescent chloroplasts of Arabidopsis thaliana. Using bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) chromoplasts, we establish that phyllobilin hydroxylation is catalyzed by a membrane-bound, molecular oxygen- and ferredoxin-dependent activity. As these features resemble the requirements of PAO, we considered membrane-bound Rieske-type oxygenases as potential candidates. Analysis of mutants of the two Arabidopsis Rieske-type oxygenases (besides PAO), uncovered that phyllobilin hydroxylation depends on TRANSLOCON AT THE INNER CHLOROPLAST ENVELOPE 55 (TIC55). Our work demonstrates a catalytic activity for TIC55, which in the past has been considered as a redox sensor of protein import into plastids. Given the wide evolutionary distribution of both PAO and TIC55, we consider that chlorophyll degradation likely co-evolved with land plants.

Concepts: Photosynthesis, Plastid, Chloroplast, Plant, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Capsicum annuum, Bell pepper


In three experiments participants haptically discriminated object shape using unimanual (single hand explored two objects) and bimanual exploration (both hands were used, but each hand, left or right, explored a separate object). Such haptic exploration (one versus two hands) requires somatosensory processing in either only one or both cerebral hemispheres; previous studies related to the perception of shape/curvature found superior performance for unimanual exploration, indicating that shape comparison is more effective when only one hemisphere is utilized. The current results, obtained for naturally shaped solid objects (bell peppers, Capsicum annuum) and simple cylindrical surfaces demonstrate otherwise: bimanual haptic exploration can be as effective as unimanual exploration, showing that there is no necessary reduction in ability when haptic shape comparison requires interhemispheric communication. We found that while successive bimanual exploration produced high shape discriminability, the participants' bimanual performance deteriorated for simultaneous shape comparisons. This outcome suggests that either interhemispheric interference or the need to attend to multiple objects simultaneously reduces shape discrimination ability. The current results also reveal a significant effect of age: older adults' shape discrimination abilities are moderately reduced relative to younger adults, regardless of how objects are manipulated (left hand only, right hand only, or bimanual exploration).

Concepts: Left-handedness, Discrimination, Capsicum annuum, Capsicum, Ageism, Bell pepper, Paprika, Medial longitudinal fissure


Bell pepper ( L.) is a group of fruit vegetables that has large variation in fruit shape, fruit size, and horticultural traits. Using unadapted sources of germplasm to bring in novel alleles while maintaining favorable quality and horticultural traits is challenging for breeding in pepper. A genetic map with 318 loci from genotype-by-sequencing (GBS) and single nucleotide polymorphism assays was generated from a recombinant inbred line population derived from a cultivated bell-type ‘Maor’ and a landrace highly resistant to , ‘Criollo de Morelos-334’. Forty-nine quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected for fruit, leaf, and horticultural traits with the scantwo permutation and stepwiseqtl methods from R/qtl. With the availability of a pepper reference genome and GBS data, candidate genes for pepper organ size and other horticultural traits were predicted. , , and genes were candidate genes for controlling organ sizes on chromosome 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Two candidate genes controlling trichome formation in pepper are located at chromosome 10: and . The locus on chromosome 10, which encodes a member of the R2R3 MYB-domain family of proteins, has a function in anthocyanin accumulation. These QTL results and the candidate genes for each trait emphasize the genetic basis of the important traits for breeding with unadapted parents in bell pepper.

Concepts: DNA, Gene, Genetics, Chromosome, Quantitative trait locus, Capsicum annuum, Capsicum, Bell pepper


The purposes of this study were to identify physicochemical properties and evaluate bioactive compound levels and antioxidant characteristics at 30 day intervals during the 90 days of fermentation of gochujang fortified with five different varieties of red pepper: Juktoma pepper (RP1), facing heaven pepper (RP2), Thai chili pepper (RP3), bird’s eye pepper (RP4), and red bell pepper (RP5). Physicochemicals properties, including reducing sugar, capsaicin, pH, β-carotene, and color parameters, of gochujang were evaluated. Antioxidant compounds of total polyphenols and total flavonoids were analyzed with antioxidant activities of DPPH and FRAP assays. The results showed that gochujangs (GRP1, GRP5) fortified with RP1, and RP5, had consistently higher values of reducing sugars, total polyphenols, and total flavonoids with antioxidant activities, but lower values of capsaicin, pH, β-carotene, and color parameters as compared to GRP2, GRP3, GRP4 during 90 days of fermentation. GRP5 especially had the highest reducing sugar, amino acid contents, total polyphenols, and total flavonoids with antioxidant activities and the lowest value of capsaicin during the 90 days of fermentation.

Concepts: Antioxidant, Capsicum annuum, Capsicum, Chili pepper, Scoville scale, Bell pepper, Paprika, Chili peppers


In the present study, the GAB and moisture migration rate models were used to predict the shelf life of paprika under domestic (40 °C and 90% RH) and industrial (5, 10, 15 and 20 °C with 70% RH) storage conditions. The correlations between physicochemical characteristics and moisture content of paprika were developed to estimate the stability of the paprika. The estimated shelf life of low moisture paprika (4.40% dry basis) was found to be 101 and 31 days in HDPE and LDPE packages, respectively when stored in domestic condition. In industrial storage condition, the shelf life prediction was 5.47 years in HDPE and 1.68 years in LDPE packages. The first order kinetic models of extractable color (ASTA) and degree of caking described the quality degradation of paprika during storage. The relative humidity and temperature of the storage environment were significant parameters affecting the stability of paprika. The shelf life of paprika can be extended by storage at or below monolayer moisture content and low temperature.

Concepts: Physical chemistry, Relative humidity, Capsicum annuum, Capsicum, Bell pepper, Paprika


Many countries are utilizing reclaimed wastewater for agriculture as water demands due to drought, rising temperatures, and expanding human populations. Unfortunately, wastewater often contains biologically active, pseudopersistant pharmaceuticals, even after treatment. Runoff from agriculture and effluent from wastewater treatment plants also contribute high concentrations of pharmaceuticals to the environment. This study assessed the effects of common pharmaceuticals on an agricultural pest, the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer, Hemiptera: Aphididae). Second instar nymphs were transferred to bell peppers (Capsicum annuum) that were grown hydroponically. Treatment plants were spiked with contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) at environmentally relevant concentrations found in reclaimed wastewater. M. persicae displayed no differences in population growth or microbial community differences due to chemical treatments. Plants, however, displayed significant growth reduction in antibiotic and mixture treatments, specifically in wet root masses. Antibiotic treatment masses were significantly reduced in the total and root wet masses. Mixture treatments displayed an overall reduction in plant root wet mass. Our results suggest that the use of reclaimed wastewater for crop irrigation would not affect aphid populations, but could hinder or delay crop production.

Concepts: Bacteria, Agriculture, Water pollution, Sewage treatment, Hemiptera, World population, Capsicum annuum, Bell pepper


Resistance to Tomato spotted wilt virus isolated from paprika (TSWV-Pap) was overcome at high temperatures (30 ± 2°C) in both accessions of Capsicum annuum S3669 (Hana Seed Company) and C. chinense PI15225 (AVRDC Vegetable Genetic Resources). S3669 and PI15225, which carrying the Tsw gene, were mechanically inoculated with TSWV-Pap, and then maintained in growth chambers at temperatures ranging from 15 ± 2°C to 30 ± 2°C (in 5°C increments). Seven days post inoculation (dpi), a hypersensitivity reaction (HR) was induced in inoculated leaves of PI152225 and S3669 plants maintained at 25°C ± 2°C. Meanwhile, necrotic spots were formed in upper leaves of 33% of PI15225 plants maintained at 30 ± 2°C, while systemic mottle symptoms developed in 50% of S3669 plants inoculated. By 15 dpi, 25% of S3669 plants had recovered from systemic mottling induced at 30 ± 2°C. These results demonstrated that resistance to TSWV-Pap can be overcome at higher temperatures in both C. chinense and C. annuum. This is the first study reporting the determination of temperatures at which TSWV resistance is overcome in a C. annuum genetic resource expressing the Tsw gene. Our results indicated that TSWV resistance shown from pepper plants possess the Tsw gene could be overcome at high temperature. Thus, breeders should conduct evaluation of TSWV resistance in pepper cultivars at higher temperature than 30°C (constant temperature).

Concepts: Immune system, Fruit, Tomato, Seed, Capsicum annuum, Capsicum, Bell pepper, Paprika


A randomized block design experiment was performed to investigate the influence of drying on the physical, chemical and nutritional quality attributes of five prominent cultivars of India under sun drying (SD) (mean temperature 35.5 o C, average daily radiation 5.26kWh/m-2 and mean relative humidity 73.66% RH), hot air drying (HD) at 65 °C, microwave-vacuum drying (MVD) (800W- 5KPa) and freeze drying (FD) (-50 °C, 5KPa). Water activity, pH, total phenolic content (TPC), ascorbic acid (AA), capsaicin, β-carotene, color, and Scoville heat unit were studied.

Concepts: Capsicum, Capsaicin, Chili pepper, Scoville scale, Bell pepper


The cystine-knot metallocarboxypeptidase inhibitors (MCPIs) are peptides that contribute to control proteolytic activity, involved in storage, growth and maintenance of plants. Lately studies reported several MCPIs with potential use in biomedical applications; as anti-cancer, anti-thrombotic, anti-malaric and anti-angiogenic agents. We report the isolation, purification, chemical stability and biochemical characterization of a novel carboxypeptidase A inhibitor (YBPCI) isolated from Capsicum annuum L. var. Yellow Bell Pepper, the first cystine-knot miniprotein (CKM) of the species. We demonstrate the stability of YBPCI (IC50 = 0.90 μg/ml) to high temperatures, high salt concentration and extreme pH values. MALDI-TOF/MS analysis detected a molecular weight of 4057 Da, and peptide mass fingerprint resulted in no matches with other protease inhibitors. In vitro gastrointestinal digestion subjecting YBPCI to pH 2 incubation and proteolytic attack resulted in complete inhibitory activity. To summarize, there are no reports to date of carboxypeptidase inhibitors in C. annuum species, giving our report much more relevance.

Concepts: Metabolism, Chemistry, PH, Protease, Capsicum annuum, Capsicum, Bell pepper, Paprika