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Concept: Bayer


Background Although many patients with venous thromboembolism require extended treatment, it is uncertain whether it is better to use full- or lower-intensity anticoagulation therapy or aspirin. Methods In this randomized, double-blind, phase 3 study, we assigned 3396 patients with venous thromboembolism to receive either once-daily rivaroxaban (at doses of 20 mg or 10 mg) or 100 mg of aspirin. All the study patients had completed 6 to 12 months of anticoagulation therapy and were in equipoise regarding the need for continued anticoagulation. Study drugs were administered for up to 12 months. The primary efficacy outcome was symptomatic recurrent fatal or nonfatal venous thromboembolism, and the principal safety outcome was major bleeding. Results A total of 3365 patients were included in the intention-to-treat analyses (median treatment duration, 351 days). The primary efficacy outcome occurred in 17 of 1107 patients (1.5%) receiving 20 mg of rivaroxaban and in 13 of 1127 patients (1.2%) receiving 10 mg of rivaroxaban, as compared with 50 of 1131 patients (4.4%) receiving aspirin (hazard ratio for 20 mg of rivaroxaban vs. aspirin, 0.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.20 to 0.59; hazard ratio for 10 mg of rivaroxaban vs. aspirin, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.14 to 0.47; P<0.001 for both comparisons). Rates of major bleeding were 0.5% in the group receiving 20 mg of rivaroxaban, 0.4% in the group receiving 10 mg of rivaroxaban, and 0.3% in the aspirin group; the rates of clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding were 2.7%, 2.0%, and 1.8%, respectively. The incidence of adverse events was similar in all three groups. Conclusions Among patients with venous thromboembolism in equipoise for continued anticoagulation, the risk of a recurrent event was significantly lower with rivaroxaban at either a treatment dose (20 mg) or a prophylactic dose (10 mg) than with aspirin, without a significant increase in bleeding rates. (Funded by Bayer Pharmaceuticals; EINSTEIN CHOICE number, NCT02064439 .).

Concepts: Clinical trial, Blood, Stroke, Thrombosis, Warfarin, Dose, Aspirin, Bayer


Abstract Background: The accuracy of the Contour(®) Plus (Bayer HealthCare LLC, Diabetes Care, Whippany, NJ) blood glucose monitoring system (BGMS) was evaluated in two separate studies. Materials and Methods: In the laboratory study, fingerstick samples from 100 subjects were tested in duplicate using three test strip lots and assessed per International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 15197:2003, Section 7 (≥95% of results within ±15 mg/dL or ±20% of the reference result for samples with glucose concentrations <75 and ≥75 mg/dL, respectively) and ISO 15197:2013, Section 6.3 (≥95% of results within ±15 mg/dL or ±15% of the reference result for samples with glucose concentrations <100 and ≥100 mg/dL, respectively) accuracy criteria. In the clinical trial, 220 subjects with diabetes, naive to the BGMS, tested capillary glucose from fingertip and palm blood samples and completed an ease-of-use questionnaire. BGMS and YSI glucose analyzer results were compared. Results: In the laboratory study, 100% of results met ISO 15197:2003 and ISO 15197:2013 accuracy criteria. In the clinical trial, 100% and 99.1% of subject fingerstick results and 98.1% and 96.7% of subject palm results met ISO 15197:2003 and ISO 15197:2013 accuracy criteria, respectively. By Parkes Consensus Error Grid analysis, 100% of subject fingerstick results and 98.1% of subject palm results were within Zone A (remainder within Zone B). Questionnaire results showed most subjects found the BGMS easy to use. Conclusions: The Contour Plus BGMS meets ISO 15197:2003 and ISO 15197:2013 accuracy criteria in the laboratory and when used by untrained individuals.

Concepts: Clinical trial, Diabetes mellitus, Evaluation, Diabetes, Blood sugar, Blood glucose monitoring, International Organization for Standardization, Bayer


The sodium-modified form of fluorohectorite nanoclay (NaFh) is introduced as a potential drug carrier, demonstrating its ability for the controlled release of the broad-spectrum antibiotic Ciprofloxacin through in vitro tests. The new clay-drug composite is designed to target the local infections in the large intestine, where it delivers most of the incorporated drug thanks to its pH-sensitive behavior. The composite has been conceived to avoid the use of coating technology and to decrease the side-effects commonly associated to the burst-release of the ciprofloxacin at the stomach level. NaFh was obtained from lithium-fluorohectorite by ion exchange, and its lack of toxicity was demonstrated by in vivo studies. Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (Cipro) was encapsulated into the clay at different values of the pH, drug initial concentration, temperature and time. Systematic studies by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared and visible spectrophotometry (FT-IR and UV-vis), and thermal analysis (TGA) indicated that the NaFh host exhibits a high encapsulation efficiency for Cipro, which reaches a 90% of the initial Cipro in solution at 65 oC, with initial concentration of drug in solution of 1.36 x 10-2 mol L-1 at acid pH. XRD revealed that a true intercalation of Cipro takes place between clay layers. TG showed an increased thermal stability of the drug when intercalated into the clay, as compared to the “free” Cipro. IR suggested a strong clay-Cipro interaction via ketone group, as well as the establishment of hydrogen bonds between the two materials. In vitro drug release tests revealed that NaFh is a potentially efficient carrier to deliver Cipro in the large intestine, where the release process is mediated by more than just one mechanism.

Concepts: Acid, In vivo, Clostridium difficile, Ciprofloxacin, Quinolone, Moxifloxacin, Levofloxacin, Bayer


We report here the draft genome sequences of 15 ciprofloxacin-resistant Salmonella enterica strains with resistance to multiple other antibiotics, including aminoglycosides, β-lactams, sulfonamides, tetracycline, and trimethoprim, isolated from different imported foods. Three strains (NCTR75, NCTR281, and NCTR350) showed a high level of ciprofloxacin resistance compared to that of the other isolates. The whole-genome sequencing data provide a better understanding of the antibiotic resistance mechanisms and virulence properties of these isolates.

Concepts: Bacteria, Antibiotic resistance, Salmonella enterica, Clostridium difficile, Quinolone, Antibiotics, Bayer, Sulfonamide


Premise and Objective: Elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has low risk for post-operative infectious complications; still most clinicians use persistent post-operative prophylactic antibiotics out of habit, tradition, or simply as defensive practice due to evolving medicolegal implications of a large number of surgeries being showcased as daycare or next day discharge procedures. This randomised prospective trial was done to test the need for such prophylaxis in cases of elective LC in a rural/semi-urban setting.

Concepts: Medicine, Bacteria, Antibiotic resistance, Surgery, Antibiotic, Laparoscopic surgery, Cholecystectomy, Bayer


The emergence of antibiotics and their active metabolites in aquatic ecosystem has motivated the development of sensitive and reliable sensors to monitor traces of antibiotics and metabolites in drinking water sources (i.e. surface water). The surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) technique, which is widely recognized as a high sensitivity method for molecular vibrational detection, is potentially a powerful tool for trace environmental contamination analysis. The main goal of this work is to demonstrate pharmaceutical and metabolite multiplexing detection using the SERS approach. Periodic metallic nanostructures were fabricated using laser interference lithography (LIL) and used as SERS substrates (platform that supports the SERS effect). The LIL method allowed excellent substrate-to-substrate geometric parameters variations; for instance, the variations in periodicity were determined to be less than 1%. A common fluoroquinolone (FQ) parent-and-metabolite pair, enrofloxacin (ENRO) and ciprofloxacin (CIPRO), was targeted for multiplexing detection on the relative uniform substrates fabricated by LIL. The quantifications of the analytes mixtures were achieved by chemometric analysis (i.e. non-negative matrix factorization with alternating least square algorithm (NMF-ALS)). The limit of the quantification (LOQ) of the present method is in the ppm-level with less than 10% spatial variation in the SERS signal.

Concepts: Water, Scattering, Raman scattering, Clostridium difficile, Ciprofloxacin, Quinolone, Aquatic ecosystem, Bayer


The development of efficient solar driven catalytic system for the degradation of antibiotics has become increasingly important in environmental protection and remediation. Non-noble-metal NiS and MoS2 nanosheet co-modified graphitic C3N4 ternary heterostructure has been synthesized via a facile combination of hydrothermal and ultrasound method, and the ternary heterostructure has been utilized for photocatalytic degradation of antibiotic agents. The antibiotics of ciprofloxacin (CIP) and tetracycline hydrochloride (TC) were photodegraded by the hybrid under the visible light. The optimal photodegradation rate of the ternary heterostructure reaches about 96% after 2h irradiation, which is 2.1 times higher than that of pure g-C3N4 for TC degradation. The photocatalytic degradation rates of the ternary heterostructure for both CIP and TC obey the pseudo-first-order kinetic model. The enhanced visible light adsorption and charge separation efficiency contribute to the photocatalytic performance of the ternary heterostructure. This work provides new insights and pathways by which efficient degradation of antibiotics can be achieved and will stimulate further studies in this important field.

Concepts: Energy, Light, Catalysis, Antibiotic, Clostridium difficile, Visible spectrum, Quinolone, Bayer


A 49-year-old man with known livedoid vasculopathy presented with recurrent painful (VAS 8/10) ulceration and necrosis on the foot (Figure 1). He was formerly treated with prostacyclin infusions, acetylsalicylic acid, intravenous immunoglobulins, different systemic antibiotics and a skin grafting. At admission an antithrombotic therapy with enoxaparin (Clexane(®) ) in a dose of 1 mg/ kg bodyweight (100 mg) once daily was initiated. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, All rights reserved, Copyright, Bayer


The ecotoxicological effects of Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CIP) were tested on population densities of plankton assemblages consisting of two algae (Isochrysis galbana and Platymonas subcordiformis) and a rotifer (Brachionus plicatilis). The I. galbana showed a significant decrease in densities when concentrations of CIP were above 2.0 mg L(-1) in single-species tests, while P. subcordiformis and B. plicatilis were stable in densities when CIP were less than10.0 mg L(-1). The equilibrium densities of I. galbana in community test increased with CIP concentrations after falling to a trough at 5.0 mg L(-1), showed a completely different pattern of P. subcordiformis which decreased with CIP concentrations after reaching a peak at 30.0 mg L(-1). The observed beneficial effect was a result of interspecies interactions of trophic cascade that buffered for more severe direct effects of toxicants. The community test-based NOEC of CIP (2.0 mg L(-1)), embodying the indirect effects, was different from the extrapolated one derived by single-species tests (0.5 mg L(-1)), but all lacked confidence interval. A CIP threshold concentration of obvious relevance to ecological interaction was calculated with a simplified plankton ecological model, achieving a value of 1.26 mg L(-1) with a 95% bootstrapping confidence interval from 1.18 to 1.31 mg L(-1).

Concepts: Statistics, Interval finite element, Population density, Confidence interval, Brachionus plicatilis, Rotifers, Quinolone, Bayer


Indaziflam (Esplanade™, Bayer CropScience) is a cellulose biosynthesis inhibiting (CBI) herbicide that is a unique mode of action for resistance management and has broad spectrum activity at low application rates. This research further explores indaziflam’s activity on monocotyledons and dicotyledons, and evaluates indaziflam’s potential for restoring non-crop sites infested with invasive winter annual grasses.

Concepts: Bayer