Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Baseball


Baseball pitching imposes a dangerous valgus load on the elbow that puts the joint at severe risk for injury. The goal of this study was to develop a musculoskeletal modeling approach to enable evaluation of muscle-tendon contributions to mitigating elbow injury risk in pitching. We implemented a forward dynamic simulation framework that used a scaled biomechanical model to reproduce a pitching motion recorded from a high school pitcher. The medial elbow muscles generated substantial, protective, varus elbow moments in our simulations. For our subject, the triceps generated large varus moments at the time of peak valgus loading; varus moments generated by the flexor digitorum superficialis were larger, but occurred later in the motion. Increasing muscle-tendon force output, either by augmenting parameters associated with strength and power or by increasing activation levels, decreased the load on the ulnar collateral ligament. Published methods have not previously quantified the biomechanics of elbow muscles during pitching. This simulation study represents a critical advancement in the study of baseball pitching and highlights the utility of simulation techniques in the study of this difficult problem.

Concepts: Simulation, Baseball, Pitcher, Fastball, Catcher, Baseball positions, Tommy John surgery, Relief pitcher



The Oxford Nanopore MinION sequencer, currently in pre-release testing through the MinION Access Programme (MAP), promises long reads in real-time from a cheap, compact, USB device. Tools have been released to extract FASTA/Q from the MinION base calling output and to provide basic yield statistics. However, no single tool yet exists to provide comprehensive alignment-based quality control and error profile analysis - something that is extremely important given the speed with which the platform is evolving.

Concepts: DNA, Quality control, Data, Computer program, Baseball, Tool, Universal Serial Bus, Profiles


Tearing of the anterior capsule of the shoulder is a rare but debilitating injury for throwing athletes. However, there is very little in the literature to guide its diagnosis and treatment. In this case series, we outline our experience with anterior capsular tears of the shoulder in professional baseball players.

Concepts: Baseball, Major League Baseball, Minor league baseball, Nippon Professional Baseball, Israel Baseball League, Honkbal Hoofdklasse


Many studies explored closed kinetic chain shoulder exercises (CKCSEs) with a sling because they are safer and more effective than open chain exercises, especially in early stages of treatment. However, the application of CKCSE in youth baseball players has been rarely attempted, although teenage baseball players also experience shoulder pain.

Concepts: Baseball, Major League Baseball, Softball, Little League Baseball, Amateur baseball in the United States, Little League World Series


Type III (T-III) endoleaks following endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) remain a major concern. Our center experienced a recent concentration of T-III endoleaks requiring elective and emergency treatment and prompted our review of all EVAR implants over a 40-month period from April 2011 until August 2014. This report represents a single center experience with T-III endoleak management with analysis of factors leading to the T-III-related failure of EVAR.

Concepts: Management, Experience, Urgent care, Chord, Semitone, Failure mode and effects analysis, 2011, Baseball


Baseball players, specifically pitchers, with symptomatic neurovascular occlusion often initially complain of arm fatigue, loss of ball control, and velocity. As the compression continues complaints may manifest into dull pain, paresthesia, and decreased grip strength.

Concepts: Upper limb, Baseball, Pitcher, Catcher, Batting, Designated hitter, Baseball positions, Pinch hitter


Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) has become a common procedure among Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers. It is unclear if a limit on innings pitched after UCLR should be instituted to prevent revision UCLR.

Concepts: Texas, Baseball, Major League Baseball, World Series, National League, American League, Designated hitter, Christy Mathewson


The number of Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers requiring ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) reconstructions is increasing. Recent literature has attempted to correlate specific stresses placed on the throwing arm to risk for UCL injury, with limited results.

Concepts: Baseball, Pitcher, Major League Baseball, World Series, National League, American League, St. Louis Cardinals, Designated hitter


Acetaminophen has recently been recognized as having impacts that extend into the affective domain. In particular, double blind placebo controlled trials have revealed that acetaminophen reduces the magnitude of reactivity to social rejection, frustration, dissonance, and to both negatively- and positively-valenced attitude objects. Given this diversity of consequences, it has been proposed that the psychological effects of acetaminophen may reflect a widespread blunting of evaluative processing. We tested this hypothesis using event-related potentials (ERPs). Sixty-two participants received acetaminophen or a placebo in a double-blind protocol and completed the Go/NoGo task. Participants' ERPs were observed following errors on the Go/NoGo task, in particular the error-related negativity (ERN; measured at FCz) and error-related positivity (Pe; measured at Pz and CPz). Results show that acetaminophen inhibits the Pe, but not the ERN, and the magnitude of an individual’s Pe correlates positively with omission errors, partially mediating the effects of acetaminophen on the error rate. These results suggest that recently documented affective blunting caused by acetaminophen may best be described as an inhibition of evaluative processing. They also contribute to the growing work suggesting that the Pe is more strongly associated with conscious awareness of errors relative to the ERN.

Concepts: Evaluation, Consciousness, Error, Inhibitor, Aggression, Social rejection, Baseball, Baseball statistics