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Concept: Barisan Nasional


Comparing nurses and general caregivers' knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) on medication administration process in long-term care (LTC) setting and an assessment of their stress, anxiety, and depression (SAD) level.

Concepts: Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Klang, Selangor, Federated Malay States, Peninsular Malaysia, Petaling Jaya, Barisan Nasional


In this dataset, we distinguish 15 accessions of Garcinia mangostana from Peninsular Malaysia using Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy coupled with chemometric analysis. We found that the position and intensity of characteristic peaks at 3600-3100 cm(-) (1) in IR spectra allowed discrimination of G. mangostana from different locations. Further principal component analysis (PCA) of all the accessions suggests the two main clusters were formed: samples from Johor, Melaka, and Negeri Sembilan (South) were clustered together in one group while samples from Perak, Kedah, Penang, Selangor, Kelantan, and Terengganu (North and East Coast) were in another clustered group.

Concepts: Malaysia, Negeri Sembilan, Johor, Peninsular Malaysia, Penang, Menteri Besar, Barisan Nasional, Malaysian general election, 2008


Quassinoids, the major secondary metabolites of Eurycoma longifolia roots, improve male fertility. Hence, it is crucial to investigate their quantitative level in E. longifolia extracts. A profile was established to identify the primary metabolites and major quassinoids, and quantify quassinoids using external calibration curves. Furthermore, the metabolic discrimination of E. longifolia roots from different regions was investigated. The (1)H-NMR spectra of the quassinoids, eurycomanone, eurycomanol, 13,21-dihydroeurycomanone, and eurycomanol-2-O-β-D-glycopyranoside were obtained. The (1)H-NMR profiles of E. longifolia root aqueous extracts from Perak (n = 30) were obtained and used to identify primary metabolites and the quassinoids. Selangor, Kedah, Terengganu (n = 5 for each), and Perak samples were checked for metabolic discrimination. Hotelling’s T(2) plot was used to check for outliers. Orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis was run to reveal the discriminatory metabolites. Perak samples contained formic, succinic, methylsuccinic, fumaric, lactic, acetic and syringic acids as well as choline, alanine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, α-glucose, eurycomanone, eurycomanol, 13,21-dihydroeurycomanone, and eurycomanol-2-O-β-D-glycopyranoside. The extracts from other locations contained the same metabolites. The limit of quantification values were 1.96 (eurycomanone), 15.62 (eurycomanol), 3.91 (13,21-dihydroeurycomanone), and 31.25 (eurycomanol-2-O-β-D-glycopyranoside) ppm. The Hotelling’s T(2) plot revealed no outlier. The orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis model showed that choline, eurycomanol, eurycomanol-2-O-β-D-glycopyranoside, and lactic and succinic acid levels were different among regions. Terengganu and Perak samples contained higher amounts of eurycomanol and eurycomanol-2-O-β-D-glycopyranoside, respectively. The current approach efficiently detected E. longifolia root metabolites, quantified the quassinoids, and discriminated E. longifolia roots from different locations. These findings could be applicable to future research on E. longifolia where the higher content of quassinoids is required.

Concepts: Metabolism, Data analysis, Acetic acid, Carboxylic acid, Discrimination, Adultism, Eurycoma longifolia, Barisan Nasional


There are limited studies describing the epidemiology of childhood brain injury, especially in developing countries. This study analyses data from the Malaysian National Trauma Database (NTrD) registry to estimate the incidence of childhood brain injury among various demographic groups within the state of Selangor and Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Demography, India, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Selangor, Putrajaya, Barisan Nasional


One of the largest cross-sectional study in recent years was carried out to investigate the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among urban and rural school children from five states namely Selangor, Perak, Pahang, Kedah and Johor in Peninsula Malaysia. This information would be vital for school authorities to influence strategies for providing better health especially in terms of reducing intestinal parasitism.

Concepts: Malaysia, Selangor, Negeri Sembilan, Johor, Peninsular Malaysia, Perak, Menteri Besar, Barisan Nasional


Leptospirosis is an emerging disease, especially in countries with a tropical climate such as Malaysia. A dramatic increase in the number of cases has been reported over the last decade; however, information on the epidemiological trends of this disease is lacking. The objective of this study is to provide an epidemiological description of human leptospirosis cases over a 9-year period (2004-2012) and disease relationship with meteorological, geographical, and demographical information. A retrospective study was undertaken to describe the patterns of human leptospirosis cases and their association with intrinsic (sex, age, and ethnicity) and extrinsic (location, rainfall, and temperature) factors. Data was grouped according to age, sex, ethnicity, seasonality and geographical distribution, and analyzed using statistical tools to understand the influence of all the different factors on disease incidence. A total of 12,325 cases of leptospirosis were reported between 2004 and 2012 with an upward trend in disease incidence, with the highest in 2012. Three hundred thirty-eight deaths were reported with an overall case fatality rate of 2.74%, with higher incidence in males (9696; 78.7%) compared with female patients (2629; 21.3%), and overall male to female ratio of 3.69:1. Patients aged cohorts between 30 to 39 years old (16.22 per 100,000 population) had the highest disease incidence while the lowest incidence occurred between <1 to 9 years old (3.44 per 100,000 population). The average incidence was highest amongst Malays (10.97 per 100,000 population), followed by Indians (7.95 per 100,000 population). Stratification according to geographical distribution showed that the state of Malacca had the highest average disease incidence (11.12 per 100,000 population) followed by Pahang (10.08 per 100,000 population). The states of Terengganu, Kelantan, and Perak recorded similar rates of incidence (≈8.00 per 100,000 population), while Johor with the least number of reported cases (1.80 per 100,000 population). Positive relationships were recorded between the number of reported cases with the number of raining days per month and monthly average temperature (p-value < 0.05). However, no significant association was noted between rainfall volume and number of reported Leptospirosis cases. This collaborative efforts between medical, academic and governmental institutions has enabled the construction of this comprehensive database that is essential to understand the disease trends in Malaysia and add insights into the prevention and control of this disease.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Male, Statistics, Female, Demography, Sex, Malaysia, Barisan Nasional