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Concept: Bacillus Calmette-Guérin

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Badgers are involved in the transmission to cattle of bovine tuberculosis (TB), a serious problem for the UK farming industry. Cross-sectional studies have shown an association between bite wounds and TB infection in badgers which may have implications for M. bovis transmission and control, although the sequence of these two events is unclear. Transmission during aggressive encounters could potentially reduce the effectiveness of policies which increase the average range of a badger and thus its opportunities for interaction with other social groups.

Concepts: Tuberculosis, Mycobacterium, Cattle, Mycobacterium bovis, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, Tuberculosis treatment, Badger

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A field trial was conducted to investigate the impact of oral vaccination of free-living badgers against natural-transmitted Mycobacterium bovis infection. For a period of three years badgers were captured over seven sweeps in three zones and assigned for oral vaccination with a lipid-encapsulated BCG vaccine (Liporale-BCG) or with placebo. Badgers enrolled in Zone A were administered placebo while all badgers enrolled in Zone C were vaccinated with BCG. Badgers enrolled in the middle area, Zone B, were randomly assigned 50:50 for treatment with vaccine or placebo. Treatment in each zone remained blinded until the end of the study period. The outcome of interest was incident cases of tuberculosis measured as time to seroconversion events using the BrockTB Stat-Pak lateral flow serology test, supplemented with post-mortem examination. Among the vaccinated badgers that seroconverted, the median time to seroconversion (413 days) was significantly longer (p = 0.04) when compared with non-vaccinated animals (230 days). Survival analysis (modelling time to seroconversion) revealed that there was a significant difference in the rate of seroconversion between vaccinated and non-vaccinated badgers in Zones A and C throughout the trial period (p = 0.015). For badgers enrolled during sweeps 1-2 the Vaccine Efficacy (VE) determined from hazard rate ratios was 36% (95% CI: -62%- 75%). For badgers enrolled in these zones during sweeps 3-6, the VE was 84% (95% CI: 29%- 97%). This indicated that VE increased with the level of vaccine coverage. Post-mortem examination of badgers at the end of the trial also revealed a significant difference in the proportion of animals presenting with M. bovis culture confirmed lesions in vaccinated Zone C (9%) compared with non-vaccinated Zone A (26%). These results demonstrate that oral BCG vaccination confers protection to badgers and could be used to reduce incident rates in tuberculosis-infected populations of badgers.

Concepts: Immune system, Vaccine, Vaccination, Tuberculosis, Mycobacterium, Mycobacterium bovis, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, Serology

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Reasons for the highly variable and often poor protection conferred by the Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine are multifaceted and poorly understood.

Concepts: Cohort study, Malaria, Vaccine, Poverty, Tuberculosis, Mycobacterium, Mycobacterium bovis, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin

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Optimal management of high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer during the current bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) shortage is challenging. Although no evidence-based guidelines exist for this specific situation, current management options can be adapted for when BCG supplies are limited or when BCG is unavailable.

Concepts: Urinary bladder, Bladder cancer, Cystitis, The Current, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin

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BACKGROUND: Lepromatous leprosy is associated with suppressed cell-mediated immunity (CMI). This results in failure of the body to mount an efficient immune response and may render chemotherapy ineffective. The lack of sufficient response may mimic drug resistance. Three case reports in which the immunity was stimulated by administering Injection BCG are presented. All three patients were initially anergic and showed no reaction at the Mantoux testing site, showing an inability to mount type IV hypersensitivity and characterized by live bacilli in smears. Following 1-4 doses of Injection BCG, all three showed dead bacilli in smears. CASE REPORTS: The first case, a 61-year-old man with lepromatous leprosy who continued to show live bacilli in smears after prolonged chemotherapy, was administered a total of four BCG injections, following which he achieved clearance. The second, a 40-year-old man with borderline lepromatous leprosy and severe type 2 reactions, achieved bacterial clearance and control of severe reactions following a single injection. The third, a 67-year-old man with histoid leprosy, achieved effective bacterial killing with a single dose of Injection BCG. RESULTS: All three patients achieved good results when chemotherapy was combined with Injection BCG. Following Injection BCG, all three showed a reaction at the Mantoux testing site. CONCLUSIONS: Suppressed CMI may be responsible for the lack of response in recalcitrant cases of lepromatous leprosy. These case reports would lead to the trend in combination therapy (immunotherapy combined with chemotherapy) for such cases, and help lower the tendency for inappropriate diagnosis of drug-resistant leprosy.

Concepts: Immune system, Hypersensitivity, Immunology, Humoral immunity, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, Leprosy, Bacterium-related cutaneous conditions, Histoid leprosy

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Solutions containing bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), a live attenuated form of Mycobacterium bovis or Mycobacterium tuberculosis, commonly are injected intravesically to treat tumors of the urinary bladder. We report a case of acute mycobacterial flexor tenosynovitis in a health care worker who inadvertently inoculated her finger via needlestick while preparing BCG solution for intravesicular administration. She was treated successfully with immediate operative intervention followed by 6 months of antimycobacterial antibiotics. Of 3 previous reports of hand infections following self-inoculation with BCG solutions, this case is unique owing to rapid onset of acute mycobacterial flexor tenosynovitis and positive intraoperative mycobacterial cultures. Needlesticks with BCG-containing solutions, especially into the flexor tendon sheath, should be treated with timely surgical debridement and appropriate antimycobacterial management.

Concepts: Health care, Urinary bladder, Tuberculosis, Mycobacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, Common flexor tendon

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In the UK and Ireland, Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination of badgers has been suggested as one of a number of strategies to control or even eradicate Mycobacterium bovis infection in badgers. In this manuscript, we present the results of a badger field trial conducted in Ireland and discuss how the novel trial design and analytical methods allowed the effects of vaccination on protection against infection and, more importantly, on transmission to be estimated. The trial area was divided into three zones North to South (A, B and C) where vaccination coverages of 0, 50 and 100%, respectively, were applied. Badgers were trapped over a 4year period. Badgers were assigned to either placebo or vaccine treatment, with treatment allocation occurring randomly in zone B. Blood samples were collected at each capture, and serology was performed in these samples using a chemiluminescent multiplex ELISA system (Enfer test). The analysis aimed to compare new infections occurring in non-infected non-vaccinated badgers to those in non-infected vaccinated ones, while accounting for the zone in which the badger was trapped and the infection pressure to which this individual badger was exposed. In total, 440 records on subsequent trappings of individual non-infected badgers were available for analysis. Over the study period, 55 new infections occurred in non-vaccinated (out of 239=23.0%) and 40 in vaccinated (out of 201=19.9%) badgers. A Generalized Linear Model (GLM) with a cloglog link function was used for analysis. Statistical analysis showed that susceptibility to natural exposure with M. bovis was reduced in vaccinated compared to placebo treated badgers: vaccine efficacy for susceptibility, VES, was 59% (95% CI=6.5%-82%). However, a complete lack of effect from BCG vaccination on the infectivity of vaccinated badgers was observed, i.e. vaccine efficacy for infectiousness (VEI) was 0%. Further, the basic reproduction ratio as a function of vaccination coverage (p) (i.e. R(p)) was estimated. Given that the prevalence of M. bovis infection in badgers in endemic areas in Ireland is approximately 18%, we estimated the reproduction ratio in the unvaccinated population as R(0)=1.22. Because VES was now known, the reproduction ratio for a fully vaccinated population was estimated as R(1)=0.50. These results imply that with vaccination coverage in badgers exceeding 30%, eradication of M. bovis in badgers in Ireland is feasible, provided that the current control measures also remain in place.

Concepts: Immune system, Statistics, Malaria, Vaccine, Tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, Badger

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Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes the majority of tuberculosis (TB) cases in humans; however, in developing countries, human TB caused by M. bovis may be frequent but undetected. Human TB caused by M. bovis is considered a zoonosis; transmission is mainly through consumption of unpasteurized dairy products, and it is less frequently attributed to animal-to-human or human-to-human contact. We describe the trends of M. bovis isolation from human samples and first-line drug susceptibility during a 15-year period in a referral laboratory located in a tertiary care hospital in Mexico City.

Concepts: Tuberculosis, Mycobacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, Pasteurization, Tuberculosis treatment, Zoonosis

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To evaluate the characteristics of patients who developed tuberculosis while receiving tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) antagonists and the related factors with tuberculosis.

Concepts: Tuberculosis, Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, Mantoux test, Tuberculin, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin

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Purpose Many patients with high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) are either refractory to bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) treatment or may experience disease relapse. We assessed the efficacy and safety of recombinant adenovirus interferon alfa with Syn3 (rAd-IFNα/Syn3), a replication-deficient recombinant adenovirus gene transfer vector, for patients with high-grade (HG) BCG-refractory or relapsed NMIBC. Methods In this open-label, multicenter (n = 13), parallel-arm, phase II study ( ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01687244), 43 patients with HG BCG-refractory or relapsed NMIBC received intravesical rAd-IFNα/Syn3 (randomly assigned 1:1 to 1 × 10(11) viral particles (vp)/mL or 3 × 10(11) vp/mL). Patients who responded at months 3, 6, and 9 were retreated at months 4, 7, and 10. The primary end point was 12-month HG recurrence-free survival (RFS). All patients who received at least one dose were included in efficacy and safety analyses. Results Forty patients received rAd-IFNα/Syn3 (1 × 10(11) vp/mL, n = 21; 3 × 10(11) vp/mL, n = 19) between November 5, 2012, and April 8, 2015. Fourteen patients (35.0%; 90% CI, 22.6% to 49.2%) remained free of HG recurrence 12 months after initial treatment. Comparable 12-month HG RFS was noted for both doses. Of these 14 patients, two experienced recurrence at 21 and 28 months, respectively, after treatment initiation, and one died as a result of an upper tract tumor at 17 months without a recurrence. rAd-IFNα/Syn3 was well tolerated; no grade four or five adverse events (AEs) occurred, and no patient discontinued treatment because of an adverse event. The most frequently reported drug-related AEs were micturition urgency (n = 16; 40%), dysuria (n = 16; 40%), fatigue (n = 13; 32.5%), pollakiuria (n = 11; 28%), and hematuria and nocturia (n = 10 each; 25%). Conclusion rAd–IFNα/Syn3 was well tolerated. It demonstrated promising efficacy for patients with HG NMIBC after BCG therapy who were unable or unwilling to undergo radical cystectomy.

Concepts: Clinical trial, Cancer, Randomized controlled trial, Urology, Urinary bladder, Bladder cancer, Hematuria, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin