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Concept: Baby boomer


OBJECTIVE: Identify factors associated with changes to health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in baby boomers. METHODS: Panel data were collected on baby boomers at two time points, 2000-2002 and 2004-2006. A fixed-effects model was used to identify associations between changes in the dependent variable (SF-36 summary scales) and changes in independent variables (health indicators/employment status). RESULTS: Mental health problems, being out of labor force, sedentary behavior, and severe lung disease were associated with deterioration in physical and mental HRQoL. Obesity was associated with deterioration in physical HRQoL whereas cardiovascular disease was associated with deterioration in mental HRQoL. Unemployment, full-time employment, and absence of lung disease symptoms were associated with improvements in physical and mental HRQoL. DISCUSSION: If we are to maximize the future labor participation, and HRQoL, of this cohort, it will be necessary to reduce obesity and sedentary behavior and to further investigate the association between health and employment.

Concepts: Medicine, Epidemiology, Cancer, Future, Quality, Mental disorder, Baby boomer, Labor force


Baby-boomer registered nurses (RNs), the largest segment of the RN workforce from 1981 to 2012, are now retiring. This would have led to nurse shortages but for the surprising embrace of the profession by millennials-who are entering the nurse workforce at nearly double the rate of the boomers. Still, the boomers' retirement will reduce growth in the size of the RN workforce to 1.3 percent per year for the period 2015-30.

Concepts: Nursing, Nurse, Nursing board certification, Baby boomer


Cancer survivors are a growing population, due in large part to the aging of the baby boomer generation and the related “silver tsunami” facing the U.S. health care system. Understanding the impact of a graying nation on cancer prevalence and comorbidity burden is critical in informing efforts to design and implement quality cancer care for this population.

Concepts: Health care, Medicine, Cancer, United States, Poverty in the United States, Barack Obama, Massachusetts, Baby boomer


Although the myth that older adults do not use mood-altering substances persists, evidence suggests that substance use among older adults has been underidentified for decades. The baby boom generation is unique in its exposure to, attitudes toward, and prevalence of substance use-causing projected rates of substance use to increase over the next twenty years. Given their unique biological vulnerabilities and life stage, older adults who misuse substances require special attention. Prevalence rates of substance use and misuse among older adults, methods of screening and assessment unique to older adults, and treatment options for older adults are reviewed.

Concepts: Biology, Demographics, Baby boomer, Cultural generations


To investigate cohort effects in arthritis prevalence across four birth cohorts: World War II (born: 1935-1944), older and younger baby boomers (born: 1945-1954 and 1955-1964), and Generation X (born: 1965-1974) and to determine whether birth cohort effects in arthritis prevalence were associated with differences in risk factors over time or period effects.

Concepts: Cohort study, Epidemiology, Demographics, World War II, Baby boomer, Generation Y, Generation, Cultural generations


Baby Boomer men (those born in 1946-1964) are becoming obese at an earlier age compared to previous generations. The present study aimed to identify weight-loss strategies used by Baby Boomer men, to determine whether those strategies varied by weight status and to explore their dieting experiences.

Concepts: Present, Nutrition, Obesity, Adipose tissue, Weight loss, Dieting, Baby boomer


This quantitative research study uses survey data of women born between 1946 and 1951 in Australia. It follows earlier work that identified the importance of transitions from work for women of the baby boomer generation. We provide important insights into the lives of women who have partially or fully retired and the changing nature of women’s work and retirement. For many women, retirement is characterized by newfound freedoms, opportunities, career change, and evolving identities, yet others view retirement as a continuation of previous occupational and gendered roles and commitments. This study has important implications for retirement policies for women.

Concepts: Life, Sociology, Research, Gender role, Quantitative research, Quantitative marketing research, Statistical survey, Baby boomer


This narrative review considers the key challenges facing healthcare professionals and policymakers responsible for providing care to populations in relation to bone health. These challenges broadly fall into four distinct themes: (1) case finding and management of individuals at high risk of fracture, (2) public awareness of osteoporosis and fragility fractures, (3) reimbursement and health system policy and (4) epidemiology of fracture in the developing world. Findings from cohort studies, randomised controlled trials, systematic reviews and meta-analyses, in addition to current clinical guidelines, position papers and national and international audits, are summarised, with the intention of providing a prioritised approach to delivery of optimal bone health for all. Systematic approaches to case-finding individuals who are at high risk of sustaining fragility fractures are described. These include strategies and models of care intended to improve case finding for individuals who have sustained fragility fractures, those undergoing treatment with medicines which have an adverse effect on bone health and people who have diseases, whereby bone loss and, consequently, fragility fractures are a common comorbidity. Approaches to deliver primary fracture prevention in a clinically effective and cost-effective manner are also explored. Public awareness of osteoporosis is low worldwide. If older people are to be more pro-active in the management of their bone health, that needs to change. Effective disease awareness campaigns have been implemented in some countries but need to be undertaken in many more. A major need exists to improve awareness of the risk that osteoporosis poses to individuals who have initiated treatment, with the intention of improving adherence in the long term. A multisector effort is also required to support patients and their clinicians to have meaningful discussions concerning the risk-benefit ratio of osteoporosis treatment. With regard to prioritisation of fragility fracture prevention in national policy, there is much to be done. In the developing world, robust epidemiological estimates of fracture incidence are required to inform policy development. As the aging of the baby boomer generation is upon us, this review provides a comprehensive analysis of how bone health can be improved worldwide for all.

Concepts: Osteoporosis, Bone, Medicine, Epidemiology, Clinical trial, Bone fracture, Randomized controlled trial, Baby boomer


Low-income populations are disproportionately affected by hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Thus, implementing baby boomer screening (born 1945-1965) for HCV may be a high priority for safety net hospitals. We report the prevalence and predictors of HCV infection and advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis based on FIB-4 plus imaging for a baby boomer cohort admitted to a safety net hospital over a 21 month interval with >10 months follow-up. Anti-HCV antibody testing was performed for 4,582 or 90% of all never-screened patients, of whom 312 (6.7%) tested positive. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of testing anti-HCV positive were 2.66 for men vs. women (p <0.001), 1.25 for uninsured vs. insured (p=0.06), 0.70 for Hispanics vs. non-Hispanic whites (p =0.005), and 0.93 per year of age (p<0.001). Among 287 patients tested for HCV RNA (91% of all anti-HCV positive), 175 (61%) were viremic (3.8% overall prevalence in cohort) which was 5% less likely per year of age (p <0.03). Non-invasive staging of 148 (84.6%) chronic HCV patients identified advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis in 50 (33.8%) with higher AORs of 3.21 for Hispanics vs. non-Hispanic whites/Asian (p =0.02) and 1.18 per year of age (p =.001). Other factors associated with significantly higher AORs of advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis were: alcohol abuse/dependence, obesity, and uninsured.

Concepts: Hospital, Cirrhosis, Hepatitis, Hepatocellular carcinoma, Hepatitis C, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C virus, Baby boomer


End-of-life (EOL) communication plays a critical role in ensuring that patients receive care concordant with their wishes and experience high quality of life. As the baby boomer population ages, scalable models of end-of-life communication will be needed to ensure that patients receive appropriate care. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) may help address the needs of this generation; however, few resources exist to guide the use of ICTs in EOL care.

Concepts: Medicine, Death, Life, Age, Sociology, End-of-life care, Need, Baby boomer