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Concept: Autumn


A “Christmas holiday effect” showing elevated cardiovascular mortality over the Christmas holidays (December 25 to January 7) was demonstrated previously in study from the United States. To separate the effect of seasonality from any holiday effect, a matching analysis was conducted for New Zealand, where the Christmas holiday period falls within the summer season.

Concepts: United States, Pacific Ocean, Australia, Autumn, New York City, Antarctica, Christmas, Northern Hemisphere


To test whether high levels of reported pride are associated with subsequent falls.

Concepts: Autumn


The aim of the study was to determine the occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites in slaughter rabbits managed in small scale farms and under industrial farming system. The research material included intestines and livers of rabbits slaughtered between years 2007 and 2011. The rabbit carcasses submitted to parasitological examination had passed the sanitary veterinary inspection as fit for human consumption. The samples were collected in spring and autumn seasons. The studies showed no effect of a rabbit farming system, season of the year, or differences in an invasion type in each year. The parasitological test recognized exclusively mixed infestation diagnosed in 79.56 % of the studied animals. Parasitological evaluation of the rabbit internal organs identified the invasions of coccidia (78.83 %), nematoda (16.42 %), cestoda (0.72 %), and cysticerci Cysticercus pisiformis (4.74 %). Coccidian invasions found in intestines were dominant, and their prevalence reached 56.48 %, while the hepatic coccidian extensity was markedly lower, i.e., 3.34 % of the examined rabbits. Invasions were characterized by low intensity. The studies recognized invasions of nematoda (Obeliscoides cuniculi, Graphidium strigosum, Trichostrongylus sp., Strongyloides sp., Passalurus ambiguus, Trichuris leporis), cestoda (Mosgovoyia pectinata), and cysticerci C. pisiformis.

Concepts: Parasites, Liver, Organ, Autumn, Gallbladder, Farm, Organs, Industrial agriculture


Falls from heights account for 64% of residential construction worker fatalities and 20% of missed work days. We hypothesized that worker safety would improve with foremen training in fall prevention and safety communication.

Concepts: Autumn, Project management, Occupational safety and health, Construction, Construction worker


During 2003-2013, fatality rates for oil and gas extraction workers decreased for all causes of death except those associated with fall events, which increased 2% annually during 2003-2013 (1). To better understand risk factors for these events, CDC examined fatal fall events in the oil and gas extraction industry during 2005-2014 using data from case investigations conducted by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Sixty-three fatal falls were identified, accounting for 15% of all fatal events. Among fatal falls, 33 (52%) workers fell from a height of >30 feet (9 meters), and 22 (35%) fell from the derrick board, the elevated work platform located in the derrick (structure used to support machinery on a drilling rig). Fall fatalities occurred most frequently when drilling rigs were being assembled or disassembled at the well site (rigging up or rigging down) (14; 22%) or when workers were removing or inserting drill pipe into the wellbore (14; 22%). Measures that target derrickmen and workers engaged in assembling and disassembling drilling rigs (rigging up and down) could reduce falls in this industry. Companies should annually update their fall protection plans and ensure effective fall prevention programs are in place for workers at highest risk for falls, including providing trainings on proper use, fit, and inspection of personal protective equipment.

Concepts: Petroleum, Personal protective equipment, Protection, Autumn, Natural gas, Occupational safety and health, Drilling rig, Rigging


Urban schoolyard environments are increasingly characterized by a proliferation of hard surfaces with little if any greenery. Schoolyard “greening” initiatives are becoming increasingly popular; however, schoolyard designs often fail to realize their restorative potential. In this quasi-experimental study, a proposed schoolyard greening project was used to visualize alternative planting designs and seasonal tree foliage; these design alternatives were subsequently used as visual stimuli in a survey administered to children who will use the schoolyard to assess the perceived restorative capacity of different design features. The findings indicate that seasonal changes in tree foliage enhance the perceived restorative quality of schoolyard environments. Specifically, fall foliage colour, when compared to green foliage, is rated as being perceived to be equally restorative for children. Additionally, seasonal planting, including evergreen conifers, may enhance the restorative quality of the schoolyard especially when deciduous trees are leafless. Landscape design professionals, community-based organizations, and other decision-makers in schoolyard greening efforts should strategically consider their tree choices to maximize year-round support for healthy attention functioning in children through restoration.

Concepts: Plant, Tree, Autumn, Leaf, Abscission, Pinophyta, Deciduous, Evergreen


The risk of serious head injury (HI) from a fall in a young child is ill defined. The relationship between the object fallen from and prevalence of intracranial injury (ICI) or skull fracture is described.

Concepts: Child, Autumn, Concussion, Neurotrauma, Brain damage


one-third of community-dwelling older adults fall annually. Exercise that challenges balance is proven to prevent falls. We conducted a systematic review with meta-analysis to determine the impact of yoga-based exercise on balance and physical mobility in people aged 60+ years.

Concepts: Systematic review, Ageing, Meta-analysis, Autumn


Migration is an important component of the life history of many animals, but persistence of large-scale terrestrial migrations is being challenged by environmental changes that fragment habitats and create obstacles to animal movements. In northern Alaska, the Central Arctic herd (CAH) of barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) is known to migrate over large distances, but the herd’s seasonal distributions and migratory movements are not well documented. From 2003-2007, we used GPS radio-collars to determine seasonal ranges and migration routes of 54 female caribou from the CAH. We calculated Brownian bridges to model fall and spring migrations for each year and used the mean of these over all 4 years to identify areas that were used repeatedly. Annual estimates of sizes of seasonal ranges determined by 90% fixed kernel utilization distributions were similar between summer and winter (X̅ = 27,929 SE = 1,064 and X̅ = 26,585 SE = 4912 km2, respectively). Overlap between consecutive summer and winter ranges varied from 3.3-18.3%. Percent overlap between summer ranges used during consecutive years (X̅ = 62.4% SE = 3.7%) was higher than for winter ranges (X̅ = 42.8% SE = 5.9%). Caribou used multiple migration routes each year, but some areas were used by caribou during all years, suggesting that these areas should be managed to allow for continued utilization by caribou. Restoring migration routes after they have been disturbed or fragmented is challenging. However, prior knowledge of movements and threats may facilitate maintenance of migratory paths and seasonal ranges necessary for long-term persistence of migratory species.

Concepts: Deer, Human migration, Autumn, Spring, Bird migration, Reindeer, Barren-ground Caribou, Porcupine caribou


OBJECTIVE: To compare the different sperm parameters according to season of the year on sperm production day and the season 70 days prior (during spermatogenesis). DESIGN: Retrospective Andrology Laboratory data comparison. SETTING: A university tertiary referral center. THE MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Sperm parameters and birth pattern in relation to the season of the year. METHODS: 6455 consecutive semen samples were collected as part of the basic fertility evaluation of 6447 couples. According to sperm concentration, the samples were classified as Normozoospermic or Oligozoospermic and analyzed in relation to the season. RESULTS: The sperm concentration and percentage of fast motility showed a significant decrease from Spring towards Summer and Fall ( p <0.001) with recovery noticed during the Winter. As well, the highest percentage of normal sperm morphology was observed during the Winter months. CONCLUSIONS: Seasonal sperm pattern seems to be a circannual-rhythmic phenomenon. The Winter and Spring semen patterns are compatible with increased fecundability and may be a plausible explanation of the peak number of deliveries during the Fall.

Concepts: Sperm, Fertility, Spermatozoon, Semen, Season, Autumn, Spring, Winter