SciCombinator

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Concept: Attractive

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Phytoestrogens constitute an attractive research topic due to their estrogenic profile and their biological involvement in woman’s health. Therefore, numerous studies are currently performed in natural products chemistry area aiming at the discovery of novel phytoestrogens. The main classes of phytoestrogens are flavonoids (flavonols, flavanones), isoflavonoids (isoflavones, coumestans), lignans, stilbenoids as well as miscellaneous chemical groups abundant in several edible and/or medicinal plants, belonging mostly to the Leguminosae family. As for other bioactives, the detection of new structures and more potent plant-derived phytoestrogens typically follows the general approaches currently available in the natural product discovery process. Plant-based approaches selected from traditional medicine knowledge and bioguided concepts are routinely employed. However, these approaches are associated with serious disadvantages such as time-consuming, repeated, and labor intensive processes as well as lack of specificity and reproducibility. In recent years, the natural products chemistry became more technology-driven, and several different strategies have been developed. Structure-oriented procedures and miniaturized approaches employing advanced hyphenated analytical platforms have recently emerged. They facilitate significantly not only the discovery of novel phytoestrogens but also the dereplication procedure leading to the anticipation of major drawbacks in natural products discovery. In this review, apart from the traditional concepts followed in phytochemistry for the discovery of novel biologically active compounds, recent applications in the field of extraction, analysis, fractionation, and identification of phytoestrogens will be discussed. Moreover, specific methodologies combining identification of actives and biological evaluation in parallel, such as liquid chromatography-biochemical detection, frontal affinity chromatography-mass spectrometry and pulsed ultrafiltration-MS will also be presented. Finally, miniaturized methods (microchip and biosensor) will be also discussed.With the current review, we attempt to give a wide and holistic overview of the different approaches which could be employed in the discovery of new phytoestrogens. On the other hand, we anticipate to attract more scientists to the area of phytoestrogens and to indicate the need of multidisciplinary concepts.

Concepts: Natural selection, Biology, Chemistry, Fabaceae, Flavonoid, Natural product, Natural products, Attractive

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It is known that paedomorphic characteristics, called “baby schema” by Lorenz, trigger an orienting response in adults, are judged as attractive and stimulate parental care. On the other hand, it is known that ethnicity may influence face encoding, with an advantage in recognizing faces of their own ethnicity (called own-race effect). Some have argued that this effect holds also for infant faces, which conflicts with the “baby schema” phenomenon. The aim of the study was to investigate the possible presence of the own-race effect on infant vs. adult face processing. Seventeen Caucasian students participated to the study. Their EEG/ERPs were recorded as they watched 400 pictures of adult and infant faces of different ethnicity (half Caucasian, half non-Caucasian), and subsequently responded to a target orientation. The behavioral results showed that responses were faster when the target was preceded by a child face, which enhanced the arousal level, regardless of ethnicity. The electrophysiological results showed an enhanced anterior N2 response to infant than adult faces, and a lack of ORE effect only for infant faces. Overall, the data indicate that baby faces automatically attract the adult viewer’s attention and that face ethnicity has no effect on this innate response.

Concepts: Infant, Innate immune system, The Target, Parenting, Face transplant, Adult, Infancy, Attractive

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Flexible and foldable devices attract substantial attention in low-cost electronics. Among the flexible substrate materials, paper has several attractive advantages. In our study, we fabricate cellulose/graphene paper by wet end formation (papermaking). The cationic polyacrylamide remarkably improve the retention ratio of graphene of cellulose/graphene slurry. Besides, cellulose/graphene paper exhibits well mechanical properties such as its flexibility and folding endurance. And we replace copper foil collector with cellulose/graphene paper in lithium-ion batteries without collector, and investigate its electrochemical properties. The obtained results show that cellulose/graphene paper presents excellent charge-discharge stability after 1600th cycles as the anode of lithium-ion batteries. These advantages highlight the potential applications of cellulose/graphene paper as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

Concepts: Rechargeable battery, Materials, Recyclable materials, Diode, Lithium-ion battery, Thin film, Attractive, Flexible

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The invasive stink bug species, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera; Pentatomidae), severely damages multiple agricultural commodities, resulting in the disruption of established IPM programs. Several semiochemicals have been identified to attract H. halys to traps and monitor their presence, abundance, and seasonal activity. In particular, the two-component aggregation pheromone of H. halys, (3S,6S,7R,10S)-10,11-epoxy-1-bisabolen-3-ol and (3R,6S,7R,10S)-10,11-epoxy-1-bisabolen-3-ol (PHER), in combination with the pheromone synergist, methyl (2E,4E,6Z)-decatrienoate (MDT), were found to be attractive. Here, we report that an analogous trienoate, ethyl (2E,4E,6Z)-decatrienoate (EDT), enhances H. halys captures when combined with PHER. In trials conducted in Eastern and Western regions of the United States, we observed that when traps were baited with the H. halys PHER + EDT, captures were significantly greater than when traps were baited with PHER alone. Traps baited with EDT alone were not attractive. Thus, the addition of EDT to lures for attracting H. halys to traps may further improve monitoring efficiency and management strategies for this invasive species.

Concepts: United States, California, Invasive species, Attractive, Guam, Great Lakes, Nezara viridula, Pentatomidae

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Photonic band-gap materials attract enormous attention as potential candidates for a steadily increasing variety of applications. Based on the preparation of easily scalable monodisperse colloids, such optically attractive photonic materials can be prepared by an inexpensive and convenient bottom-up process. Artificial polymer opals can be prepared by shear-induced assembly of core/shell particles, yielding reversibly stretch-tunable materials with intriguing structural colors. This feature article highlights recent developments of core/shell particle design and shear-induced opal formation with focus on the combination of hard and soft materials as well as crosslinking strategies. Structure formation of opal materials relies on both the tailored core/shell architecture and the parameters for polymer processing. The emphasis of this feature article is on elucidating the particle design and incorporation of addressable moieties, i.e., stimuli-responsive polymers as well as elaborated crosslinking strategies for the preparation of smart (inverse) opal films, inorganic/organic opals, and ceramic precursors by shear-induced ordering.

Concepts: Structure, Polymer, Polymer chemistry, Colloid, Soft matter, Particle, C, Attractive

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A key aspect of recruiting and retaining the best trainees is identification of the factors that attracted them to OMFS. Although such factors have been examined for medicine in general, we know of no previous study that has looked at those that are specific to OMFS. We distributed a survey online to roughly 1500 people who had registered an interest in OMFS over the past seven years. Personal data, and those about education and employment, were recorded, together with particular factors that drew them to OMFS. Of the 251 trainees who responded, 177 (71%) were interested in a career in OMFS. Differences among sub-groups related to dual qualification, sex, and relationships. Open comments identified the following attractive factors: variety of work, intellectually interesting work, collegiate atmosphere within OMFS, and making a difference to patients. The personalities of those who continued with OMFS training placed high value on achievement, and were more conscientious. The factors identified suggest that the positioning of OMFS as a complex, challenging, and varied hospital-based surgical specialty is key to attracting trainees, and these will be used in future research so that we can move forward from identifying preferences to assessing the relative value placed on those preferences. The data will be useful in the development of strategies to attract new trainees and retain them in the specialty.

Concepts: Medicine, Surgery, Following, Identification, Dentistry, Oral and maxillofacial surgery, Microsurgery, Attractive

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Nanocarbon (carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene (GN)) composites attract considerable research interest due to their fascinating applications in many fields. Here, recent developments in the field of in situ chemical vapor deposition (CVD) for the design and controlled preparation of advanced nanocarbon composites are highlighted, specifically, CNT-reinforced bulk structural composites, as well as CNT, GN, and CNT/GN functional composites, together with their practical and potential applications. In situ CVD is a very attractive approach for the fabrication of composites because of its engaging features, such as its simplicity, low-cost, versatility, and tunability. The morphologies, structures, dispersion, and interface of the resulting nanocarbon composites can be easily modulated by varying the experimental parameters (such as temperature, catalysts, carbon sources, templates or template catalysts, etc.), which enables a great potential for the in situ synthesis of high-quality nanocarbons with tailored size and dimension for constructing high-performance composites, which has not yet been achieved by conventional methods. In addition, new trends of the in situ CVD toward nanocarbon composites are discussed.

Concepts: Chemical reaction, Carbon, Carbon nanotube, Graphite, Graphene, Chemical vapor deposition, Attractive, Template

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Territorial user rights for fisheries are being promoted to enhance the sustainability of small-scale fisheries. Using Chile as a case study, we designed a market-based program aimed at improving fishers' livelihoods while incentivizing the establishment and enforcement of no-take areas within areas managed with territorial user right regimes. Building on explicit enabling conditions (i.e., high levels of governance, participation, and empowerment), we used a place-based, human-centered approach to design a program that will have the necessary support and buy-in from local fishers to result in landscape-scale biodiversity benefits. Transactional infrastructure must be complex enough to capture the biodiversity benefits being created, but simple enough so that the program can be scaled up and is attractive to potential financiers. Biodiversity benefits created must be commoditized, and desired behavioral changes must be verified within a transactional context. Demand must be generated for fisher-created biodiversity benefits in order to attract financing and to scale the market model. Important design decisions around these 3 components-supply, transactional infrastructure, and demand-must be made based on local social-ecological conditions. Our market model, which is being piloted in Chile, is a flexible foundation on which to base scalable opportunities to operationalize a scheme that incentivizes local, verifiable biodiversity benefits via conservation behaviors by fishers that could likely result in significant marine conservation gains and novel cross-sector alliances. Incentivar la Conservación de la Biodiversidad con Comunidades de Pesca Artesanal por medio de Derechos de Uso Territorial y la Innovación de Modelos de Negocio.

Concepts: Biodiversity, Conservation biology, Ecology, Management, Sustainability, The Establishment, Attractive, Sustainable fisheries

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In both single- and mixed-species social groups, certain participants are known to play important roles in providing benefits. Identifying these participants is critical for understanding group dynamics, but is often difficult with large roving social groups in the wild. Here, we develop a new approach to characterize roles in social groups and apply it to mixed-species bird flocks (flocks hereafter) in an Indian tropical evergreen forest. Two types of species, namely intraspecifically gregarious and sallying species, are thought to play important roles in flocks because studies have shown they attract other flock participants. However, it is unclear why these types are attractive and whether they are essential for flock formation. We address these questions by focusing on the composition of the subset of flocks containing only two species each. In two-species flocks, it is reasonable to assume that at least one species obtains some kind of benefit. Therefore, only those species combinations that result in benefit to at least one species should occur as two-species flocks. Using data from 540 flocks overall, of which 158 were two-species flocks, we find that intraspecifically gregarious species are disproportionately represented in two-species flocks and always lead flocks when present, and that flocks containing them are joined significantly more by other species. Our results suggest that intraspecifically gregarious species are likely to be the primary benefit providers in flocks and are important for tropical flock formation. Our study also provides a new approach to understanding importance in other mixed-species and single-species social groups.

Concepts: Biodiversity, Sociology, B vitamins, Attractive, Social, Relations of production

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Abstract Purpose: Exercise-after-stroke programmes are increasingly being provided to encourage more physical exercise among stroke survivors, but little is known about what motivates people with stroke to participate in them. This research aimed to identify factors that motivate long-term stroke survivors to exercise, and the implications for programme design. Methods: In two separate studies, focus groups and individual interviews were used to investigate the views of long-term stroke survivors on exercise and participating in exercise programmes. Their data were analysed thematically, and the findings of the studies were synthesised. Results: Eleven stroke survivors and two partners took part in two focus groups; six other stroke survivors (one with a partner) were interviewed individually. Factors reported to influence motivation were the psychological benefits of exercise, a desire to move away from a medicalised approach to exercise, beliefs about stroke recovery, and on-going support to sustain commitment. A number of potential implications of these themes for exercise programme design were identified. Conclusions: A range of personal beliefs and attitudes and external factors may affect the motivation to exercise, and these vary between individuals. Addressing these factors in the design of exercise programmes for long-term stroke survivors may enhance their appeal and so encourage greater engagement in exercise. Implications for Rehabilitation Exercise programmes may be more attractive to long-term stroke survivors if the psychological well-being benefits of participation are emphasised in their promotion. Some participants will be more attracted by programmes that are de-medicalised, for example, by being located away from clinical settings, and led by or involving suitably-trained non-clinicians. Programmes offered in different formats may attract stroke survivors with different beliefs about the value of exercise in stroke recovery. Programmes should provide explicit support strategies for on-going engagement in exercise.

Concepts: Participation, E-participation, Focus group, Obesity, Physical exercise, Motivation, Program, Attractive