SciCombinator

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Concept: Atriplex

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The choice of the best species to cultivate in semi-arid and arid climates is of fundamental importance, and is determined by many factors, including temperature and rainfall, soil type, water availability for irrigation and crop purposes. Soil or water salinity represents one of the major causes of crop stress. Species of the genus Atriplex are characterized by high biomass productivity, high tolerance to drought and salinity, and high efficiency in use of solar radiation and water. Based on a search of the international literature, the authors outline an agro-climatic zoning model to determine potential production areas in Argentina for Atriplex halimus and Atriplex numularia. Using the agroclimatic limits presented in this work, this model may be applied to any part of the world. When superimposed on the saline areas map, the agroclimatic map shows the suitability of agro-ecological zoning for both species for energy purposes on land unsuitable for food production. This innovative study was based on the implementation of a geographic information system that can be updated by further incorporation of complementary information, with consequent improvement of the original database.

Concepts: Energy, Water, Precipitation, Geographic information system, Seawater, Saline water, Atriplex, Atriplex nummularia

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In this study, we reported the phytochemical composition of the aerial parts of Atriplex halimus L. collected from Sardinia. This species is a halophytic shrub, typical of the Mediterranean Basin. Four new glycosylated flavonoids were isolated and their structures were elucidated on the basis of 1D, 2D NMR and MS spectra as 3',5'-dimethoxymyricetin-3-O-β-d-xylopyranosyl-7-O-fucopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-β-d-glucopyranoside (1), 3'-methoxyquercetin-7-O-β-d-fucopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-3-O-β-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-xylopyranoside (2), 3'-methoxyquercetin-7-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-3-O-α-arabinofuranosyl-(1 → 6)-β-d-glucopyranoside (3) and 3',5'-dimethoxymyricetin-7-O-fucopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-β-d-glucopyranoside (4). LC-MS (n) analysis on the extract revealed the presence of other myricetin, quercetin, isorhamnetin glycosides, simple phenolic acids and esters.

Concepts: Mediterranean Sea, Quercetin, Flavonoid, Glycoside, Flavonols, Myricetin, Shrubland, Atriplex

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Numerous species of gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) have been recorded from saltbush (Chenopodiaceae: Atriplex) around the world but only 11 of them belong to the large cecidomyiid genus Asphondylia. Of these, two species were described in the late 19th century from complex bud galls on Atriplex halimus in the Mediterranean Basin. In the present study Asphondylia punica is redescribed, A. conglomerata is synonymized with it, and Asphondylia scopuli is described from Atriplex lanfrancoi, an endemic plant to the Maltese Islands. Descriptions are accompanied by information about the galls and life history of the gall midges, and a review of the parasitic Hymenoptera associated with A. scopuli is provided. Four species of parasitoids were found and attributed to the families Eurytomidae, Pteromalidae, Eupelmidae and Eulophidae, of which the pteromalid Mesopolobus melitensis is described as new.

Concepts: Nematocera, Species, Flies, Parasitoid, Apocrita, Biological pest control agents, Cecidomyiidae, Atriplex

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ABSTRACT Phytostabilization of heavy metals in contaminated soils should be subject to two conditions, the first is the choice plant must be able to stabilize heavy metals in soil, the second is the plant material which produced from the phytostabilization process must be safe and useful to avoid overload on environmental system. A field experiment was conducted out to evaluate the phytostabilization potential of two halophyte species (Atriplex lentiformis and Atriplex undulata). Compost at rates of 0, 15 and 30 ton ha(-1) was used to examine its role in plant growth and heavy metals uptake. The high rate of compost (30 ton ha(-1)) decreased zinc (Zn) concentrations in the leaves of A. lentiformis and A. undulata by 15.8 and 13.0%, while lead (Pb) in the leaves decreased by 37.6 and 35.2% respectively. Despite the extremely high total heavy metals concentrations in the studied soil, plants of Atriplex were able grow and maintain shoots metals content below the toxic level and the produced plant materials had a high nutritive value compared to the conventional forage crops. Phosphorus (P) and chloride (Cl) in the roots of Atriplex plants play important function in heavy metals phytostabilization mechanism by the two halophyte plants.

Concepts: Photosynthesis, Agriculture, Zinc, Lead, Fern, Heavy metal music, Atriplex, Atriplex lentiformis

0

Atriplex nummularia (oldman saltbush) is widely planted on salt-affected land to provide a vegetative cover, which can be used as an alternative feed resource. The study was conducted to evaluate the replacement of commercial concentrate with oldman saltbush (SB) leaf on the feed intake, live weight gain, and carcass parameters of local sheep. Twenty-five sheep with an age of 6 months and weighting 14.60 ± 2.47 kg were used in randomized complete block design and distributed into five equal groups, with five animals each. The selected sheep were fed with the dietary treatments for 2 weeks for adaptation and continued until the end of the study, which lasted for 90 days. In the control treatment (SB-0), sheep were fed 100% concentrate mix, while in SB-5, SB-10, SB-15, and SB-20, 5, 10, 15, and 20% of the concentrate mix was replaced by SB, respectively. Wheat straw and water were given at ad libitum throughout the experiment period. Data on feed intake and live weight gain were recorded daily and weekly, respectively, for 90 days. Three animals from each treatment were slaughtered for carcass analysis. Atriplex nummularia leaf (Oldman saltbush) contained 92.02% dry matter (DM), 21.99% crude protein (CP), 24.77% ash, 58.27% neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and 26.56% acid detergent fiber (ADF). Dry matter intake, live weight gain, and carcass parameter were not statistically different among the treatments. Result indicated that concentrate feed can be replaced with Atriplex nummularia leaf up to 20% in sheep diet without negative effect on growth performance and carcass characteristics.

Concepts: Ethiopia, Parameter, Weight, Replacements, Replacement, Randomized block design, Atriplex, Atriplex nummularia

0

The sugarbeet root maggot, Tetanops myopaeformis Röder (Diptera: Ulidiidae), is native to North America. However, its primary crop host, sugarbeet, Beta vulgaris L., was introduced to the continent from Europe in the late 19th century. This field and greenhouse research was conducted to compare the relative attractiveness of eight cultivated and wild plant species for oviposition by T. myopaeformis, and the suitability of these potential host plants for larval development to elucidate the potential native and current host range of this pest. Results indicated that females preferred ovipositing in soil immediately adjacent to or on the following plant species: sugarbeet; spinach, Spinacia olerocea L.; common lambsquarters, Chenopodium album L.; redroot pigweed, Amaranthus retroflexus L.; Palmer amaranth, Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats.; and to a lesser extent, spear saltbush, Atriplex patula L. Larval survival was greatest on spinach, sugarbeet, and spear saltbush, which all belong to the family Chenopodiaceae. Larval survival on these plants suggests that T. myopaeformis could have exploited wild chenopodiaceous plants or others within the order Caryophyllales before sugarbeet was introduced to North America. Low larval survival on common lambsquarters, redroot pigweed, and Palmer amaranth suggests that these species are suboptimal hosts, despite demonstrated attractiveness for oviposition. A general lack of oviposition preference by T. myopaeformis females was observed for sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., and common ragweed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. These results provide insights regarding the successful and somewhat rapid host preference shift by this insect to sugarbeet after cultivation of the crop began in the continent.

Concepts: Plant, Amaranthaceae, Spinach, Amaranth, Amaranthus, Atriplex, Flora of North Dakota, Flora of Michigan

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Epidermal bladder cells (EBC) have been postulated to assist halophytes in coping with saline environments. However, little direct supporting evidence is available. Here, Chenopodium quinoa plants were grown under saline conditions for five weeks. One day prior to salinity treatment, EBC from all leaves and petioles were gently removed using a soft cosmetic brush and physiological, ionic and metabolic changes in brushed and non-brushed leaves were compared. Gentle removal of EBC neither initiated wound metabolism nor affected the physiology and biochemistry of control-grown plants but did have a pronounced effect on salt-grown plants, resulting in a salt-sensitive phenotype. Of 91 detected metabolites, more than half were significantly affected by salinity. Removal of EBC dramatically modified these metabolic changes, with the biggest differences reported for GABA, proline, sucrose and inositol, affecting ion transport across cellular membranes (as shown in electrophysiological experiments). This work provides the first direct evidence for a role of EBC in salt tolerance in halophytes and attributes this to (1) a key role of EBC as a salt dump for external sequestration of sodium; (2) improved K(+) retention in leaf mesophyll and (3) EBC as a storage space for several metabolites known to modulate plant ionic relations.

Concepts: Photosynthesis, Metabolism, Sodium chloride, Leaf, Salinity, Quinoa, Halophyte, Atriplex

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Phytostabilisation strategies have proven to be an efficient remediation option for mine tailings, but the adequate plant species and amendments have to be carefully selected. A remediation experiment was carried out at the semi-field level in tailings (pH 3.2, ≈1100, 4700 and 5000 mg kg(-1) of As, Pb and Zn, respectively) from the mining district of La Unión-Cartagena (SE Spain). A red mud derivative (Fe/Al oxides), its combination with compost, and hydrated lime (Ca hydroxide) were applied in field plots of 0.25 m(2). After four months of field stabilisation, tailings were transferred unaltered to a plant growth facility, and Atriplex halimus and Zygophyllum fabago (halophytes) were sown. Three months later, trace element (TE) solubility, plant accumulation and chemical speciation in the tailings pore water were studied. In unamended tailings, soluble TEs concentrations were very high (e.g., 40 mg Zn l(-1)), the dominant species being free ions and SO4(2-)- complexes (>70%). The addition of amendments increased tailings pH (6.7-7), reduced TEs solubility and extractability (>80-99%) and changed the dominant species of soluble Al, Cu, Pb and Zn to hydroxides and/or organo-metallic complexes, but increased slightly the extractable As and soluble Tl concentrations. Plants were able to grow only in amended tailings, and both species presented low levels of Al, As, Cd and Zn. Therefore, the use of combined red mud derivative and compost and halophytes was shown to be a good phytostabilisation strategy, although the dose applied must be carefully chosen in order to avoid possible solubilisation of As and Tl.

Concepts: Chemistry, Oxide, Sodium hydroxide, Solution, Mining, Hydroxide, Base, Atriplex

0

Quality and sensory attributes of meat from 32 mixed-breed Santa Inês lambs fed diets composed of four silages with old man saltbush (Atriplex nummularia Lind), buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris), Gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium), and Pornunça (Manihot sp.) were evaluated. Meat from lambs fed diet containing old man saltbush silage (P<0.05) showed greater values for cooking loss. Of the sensory attributes evaluated in the Longissimus lumborum muscle of the lambs, color and juiciness did not differ (P>0.05). However, the silages led to differences (P<0.05) in aroma, tenderness, and flavor values. The meat from animals fed the pornunça and Gliricidia silages was tenderer. Flavor scores were higher in meat from lambs that consumed old man saltbush silage and lower in the meat from those fed buffelgrass silage. Diets formulated with buffelgrass silage for sheep reduce meat production. Based on the results for carcass weight and meat quality, old man saltbush and pornunça are better silages for finishing sheep.

Concepts: Meat, Domestic sheep, Forages, Gliricidia, Atriplex, Cenchrus, Atriplex nummularia, Cenchrus ciliaris

0

This study aims to characterize soil properties and to investigate how these parameters, including soil salinity, are related to zonation and distributional patterns of halophytic plants occurring at edges of the Djendli Sabkha (northeastern Algeria). Soil samples were collected from four stations at Sabkha edges with seven samples for each station. Physicochemical soil parameters were analysed in each vegetation belt of halophytes. Relationships between soil traits were tested to determine spatial variation and their effects on vegetation cover of the principal halophyte species. The influence of pedological factors on the distribution and establishment of halophytes was considered using a redundancy analysis (RDA) and generalized linear models. Positive correlations were found between organic matter, carbon and nitrogen which were negatively correlated with electrical conductivity (EC), pH, gypsum, Na(+) and Cl(-) concentrations. Sharp limits were found between halophyte communities even though there is a gradual change in the physicochemical environment along the gradient centre-to-edge of the Sabkha. RDA showed that edaphic variables that best explained the data were EC, pH, organic matter (OM), carbon and nitrogen contents, Na(+) and Cl(-) concentrations. Sarcocornia fruticosa grew under higher soil salinity (EC=7.2-13.8dS/m) compared to Suaeda fruticosa and Suaeda vermiculata that afford moderate soil salinity, than Atriplex halimus established in soils with low EC values (5.5-7.3dS/m) but with high values of OM, carbon and nitrogen contents and low values of Na(+), Cl(-) and pH. Sarcocornia fruticosa grew in soils characterized with high pH, Na(+), Cl(-) values but relatively low in OM, carbon and nitrogen contents.

Concepts: Soil, Nitrogen, Humus, Organic matter, Salinity, Halophytes, Halophyte, Atriplex