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Concept: Atrial septal defect


Iatrogenic erosion of the septum primum after foramen ovale closure is an anecdotal event. We report the case of a 39-year-old woman admitted to our institution for multifocal cryptogenic cerebral ischemia and a patent foramen ovale (PFO) associated with an aneurysm of the septum primum. The patient underwent percutaneous closure of the PFO with an Amplatzer PFO Occluder device. At the 6-months follow up, the device was in the right position, but a jagged defect of the septum primum and evidence of significant left-to-right shunting was detected. The atrial septal defect was then repaired by a surgical approach. Although this event is not life-threatening, it should be considered as a therapeutic pitfall, resulting in a risk of paradoxical embolism recurrences and long-term hemodynamic impairment. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Concepts: Ventricular septal defect, Atrial septal defect, Foramen ovale, Ostium primum, Cardiac shunt


Clinical outcomes for transcatheter and operative closures of atrial septal defects (ASDs) are similar. Economic cost for each method has not been well described.

Concepts: Ventricular septal defect, Atrial septal defect, Foramen ovale, Ostium primum, Ostium secundum


Percutaneous device closure of atrial septal defect (ASD) is now considered the choice of treatment. Numerous devices with advantages/disadvantages are currently available and under development. Cardia Ultrasept II ASD occluder has a nitinol frame covered with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) membrane. Here, a well-documented case of early malfunction of PVA membrane detected in the first week of implantation in a 4-year-old male patient, who underwent an uneventful device closure with 20 mm Cardia Ultrasept II ASD Occluder, is presented. One week after implantation left-to-right shunt through the device was detected and the explantation of device revealed PVA membrane with multiple perforations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Concepts: Device, Ventricular septal defect, Atrial septal defect, Polyvinyl alcohol, Polyvinyl acetate, Cardiac shunt


Temporary intermittent complete heart block (CHB) occurred the day after interventional closure of an ASD with a 30 mm Gore Septal Occluder (GSO™) in a 2 years and 11-month-old female. CHB disappeared without further treatment and stable sinus rhythm recovered within 3 days. Only short episodes of 2nd degree AV-block (Wenckebach periodicity) at rare intervals were documented in Holter-monitors the following 2 months. Eleven months after device implantation the patient suffered from long lasting episodes of CHB. Surgical removal of the device resulted in incomplete recovery of AV-conduction. Histopathological work-up of the explanted GSO showed complete endothelialization of the device and regular scar formation. One year after surgery, the child had sinus rhythm during daytime but needed VVI-pacing while sleeping. Young age, inferior localization of the defect, and use of a large device have been individual risk factors for CHB in this patient. Clinical course and histologic findings indicate that mechanical compression was the only cause for CHB. The cumulative number of reports of CHB after use of different ASD-devices supports the recommendation to postpone the intervention in asymptomatic patients to preschool-age. Early removal of a pushing device may increase the chance of complete recovery from CHB. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Concepts: Patient, Heart, Atrial fibrillation, Greek loanwords, Intervention, Ventricular septal defect, Atrial septal defect, Cardiac shunt


IL-27, a member of the IL-12 family, has been involved in maternal tolerance to the foetus and successful pregnancy. Growing evidences indicate that IL-27 plays a crucial role in pregnancy. Aim We carried out the present study in order to investigate whether polymorphisms in the IL27 are associated with the risk for CHDs, including atrial septal defect and ventricular septal defect. Patients and methods We conducted this case-control study among 247 atrial septal defect patients, 150 ventricular septal defect patients, and 368 healthy controls in a Chinese population using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay.

Concepts: Present, Infant, Epidemiology, Case-control study, Congenital heart disease, Ventricular septal defect, Atrial septal defect, Atrioventricular septal defect


A failing intracardiac device is traditionally addressed by open-heart surgery. Surgical explantation of the device, although a simple procedure, carries risks that some patients are not able or willing to cope with. Thus, a nonsurgical option seems desirable in selected cases. We report on four cases of early malfunction of the Polyvinyl Alcohol membrane of Ultrasept II™ CARDIA ASD devices. In all cases, transthoracic echo (TTE) surveillance 4-6 months after the index procedure, depicted significant left-to-right atrial shunts through the center portion of the devices. A second nitinol double disk device with a connecting pin (Lifetech CERA™ Multifenestrated ASD device) was implanted over the CARDIA devices, with excellent results. All procedures were uneventful and all patients are asymptomatic with no residual shunts, in short-term follow-up. This device-in-device technique prevents surgical explantation of failing ASD devices, and may become a less invasive option in selected patients. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Concepts: Echocardiography, Surgery, Device, Index, Ventricular septal defect, Atrial septal defect, Polyvinyl alcohol, Cardiac shunt


Assess the evolution of right-to-left shunt (RLS) after transcatheter patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure.

Concepts: Atrial septal defect, Foramen ovale, Ostium primum, Cardiac shunt


Percutaneous closure is widely recognized as the first therapeutic option in the majority of cases of secundum atrial septal defect (ASD) because of its high effectiveness and safety. Nonetheless, with the progressive increase of implanted devices and follow-up duration, several adverse events, some of them potentially life-threatening, have been reported. We report the case of an asymptomatic aortic erosion that occurred 13 years after the procedure. The main feature of our case is the very late occurrence of a life-threatening asymptomatic complication of ASD percutaneous closure, which should prompt lifelong surveillance in this population.

Concepts: Report, Case, Ventricular septal defect, Atrial septal defect, The Progressive, Levo-Transposition of the great arteries, Cardiac shunt


We describe the case of a 27-year-old gentleman who developed late-onset clubbing and cyanosis. Transoesophageal echocardiography revealed a 27-mm ostium secundum atrial septal defect and a large, floppy Eustachian valve directing right atrial blood to the left side of the heart.

Concepts: Blood, Heart, Pulmonary artery, Ventricular septal defect, Atrial septal defect, Foramen ovale, Ostium primum, Cardiac shunt


We present our experience with the Cera (CO) and the CeraFlex occluder (CFO) in transcatheter closure of interatrial communications (IAC). Between 2013 and 2016, 201 patients (75 males, 16 with patent foramen ovale), aged 27 ± 19 (5-75) years, underwent percutaneous closure of IAC using CO or CFO in our institution. After transoesophageal imaging, the procedure was aborted in 7 young paediatric (6-13 years old) patients (3 multiple holes, 3 too small septum, 1 leak with 38 mm occlusion balloon). The occluder was removed prior to release in 11 patients (5.7%), while occlusion was successful in 183 patients (94.3%) with 44 CO, 136 CFO, and 3 Cera multifenestrated occluders. There were no deaths, embolizations, or major complications. Small residual shunts were demonstrated in 8 patients immediately after implantation, 4 (8.5%) with CO and 4 (2.9%) with CFO, all disappearing after 3 months. Over 1.8 ± 1.7 year follow-up, all patients improved with 2 asymptomatic, transient pericardial effusions and 5 adults with transient supraventricular arrhythmias, treated medically for 6 months. IAC closure with CO and CFO proved safe with favourable success rates and few, nonserious complications. The CFO flexible rotation feature helped in conforming to various septal anatomies, minimising manoeuvres and possibly post-occlusion leaks.

Concepts: Physician, Ventricular septal defect, Atrial septal defect, Foramen ovale, Ostium primum, Interatrial septum, Septum, Cardiac shunt