SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Atopy

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Allergenic pollen is produced by the flowers of a number of trees, grasses and weeds found throughout the UK. Exposure to such pollen grains can exacerbate pollen-related asthma and allergenic conditions such as allergic rhinitis (hay fever). Maps showing the location of these allergenic taxa have many applications: they can be used to provide advice on risk assessments; combined with health data to inform research on health impacts such as respiratory hospital admissions; combined with weather data to improve pollen forecasting systems; or as inputs to pollen emission models. In this study we present 1km resolution maps of 12 taxa of trees, grass and weeds found in the UK. We have selected the main species recorded by the UK pollen network. The taxa mapped in this study were: Alnus (alder), Fraxinus (ash), Betula (birch), Corylus (hazel), Quercus (oak), Pinus (pine) and Salix (willow), Poaceae (grass), Artemisia (mugwort), Plantago (plantain), Rumex (dock, sorrels) and Urtica (nettle). We also focus on one high population centre and present maps showing local level detail around the city of London. Our results show the different geographical distributions of the 12 taxa of trees, weeds and grass, which can be used to study plants in the UK associated with allergy and allergic asthma. These maps have been produced in order to study environmental exposure and human health, although there are many possible applications. This novel method not only provides maps of many different plant types, but also at high resolution across regions of the UK, and we uniquely present 12 key plant taxa using a consistent methodology. To consider the impact on human health due to exposure of the pollen grains, it is important to consider the timing of pollen release, and its dispersal, as well as the effect on air quality, which is also discussed here.

Concepts: Immune system, Asthma, Plant, Allergy, Atopy, Birch, Pollen, Betulaceae

38

Early introduction of dietary peanut in high-risk infants with severe eczema and/or egg allergy prevented peanut allergy at 5 years of age in the LEAP Study; the protective effect persisted after 12 months of avoiding peanuts in the LEAP-On Study. It is unclear whether this benefit is allergen and allergic-disease specific.

Concepts: Asthma, Immunology, Allergy, Atopy, Food allergy, Eczema, Allergology, Peanut

32

Wheezing illnesses cause major morbidity in infants and are frequent precursors to asthma.

Concepts: Immune system, Asthma, Atopy, Allergen, Wheeze

31

Differences in asthma severity may be related to inflammation in the airways. The lower airway microbiota has been associated with clinical features such as airway obstruction, symptom control, and response to corticosteroids.

Concepts: Immune system, Inflammation, Asthma, Allergy, Atopy, Allergen, Corticosteroid, Obstructive lung disease

30

Cats are the major source of indoor inhalant allergens after house dust mites. The global incidence of cat allergies is rising sharply, posing a major public health problem. Ten cat allergens have been identified. The major allergen responsible for symptoms is Fel d 1, a secretoglobin and not a lipocalin, making the cat a special case among mammals.

Concepts: Asthma, Atopy, Allergen, Cat, Allergen immunotherapy, House dust mite, Fel d 1, Cat allergy

30

There are no existing longitudinal studies of inflammatory markers and atopic disorders in childhood and risk of hypomanic symptoms in adulthood. This study examined if childhood: (1) serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP); and (2) asthma and/or eczema are associated with features of hypomania in young adulthood.

Concepts: Inflammation, Cohort study, Longitudinal study, Epidemiology, Asthma, Allergy, Atopy, C-reactive protein

30

History and severity of atopic dermatitis (AD) are risk factors for peanut allergy. Recent evidence suggests that children can become sensitized to food allergens through an impaired skin barrier. Household peanut consumption, which correlates strongly with peanut protein levels in household dust, is a risk factor for peanut allergy.

Concepts: Asthma, The Canon of Medicine, Avicenna, Allergy, Atopy, Allergen, Food allergy, Peanut

29

Abstract Skin is the largest organ of the body and is constantly exposed to physical, chemical, bacterial and fungal challenges. It is well known that probiotics are helpful for specific disorders and different clinical studies have indicated that probiotics have special effects in cutaneous apparatus directly or indirectly which can be considerable from versatile aspects. Probiotic bacteriotherapy can have great potentials in preventing and treating the skin diseases including eczema, atopic dermatitis, acne, allergic inflammation or in skin hypersensitivity, UV-induced skin damage, wound protection and cosmetic products. The current article comprehensively reviews the different health effects of probiotics on the skin.

Concepts: Immune system, Gut flora, Asthma, Hypersensitivity, Allergy, Atopy, Skin, Eczema

29

Anaphylaxis is an acute severe reaction involving multiple systems that results from a rapid release of inflammatory mediators. Patients with asthma and prior allergic reactions are at risk for anaphylaxis. Infants can present a special challenge, as the hallmark symptoms and signs of anaphylaxis may be mistaken as normal findings. These include drooling, vomiting or diarrhea, scratching, and drowsiness. The clinical manifestations of anaphylaxis are broad, as a result of it being a systemic response to an external agent. Among infants and children, there are often respiratory and cutaneous findings. There also can be subtle signs and symptoms, which can often be missed or the findings misinterpreted as normal for developmental age. The incidence of anaphylaxis has increased globally among children presenting with allergic reactions. Early recognition of the signs and symptoms is crucial to effective diagnosis and treatment. This is particularly true among infants 13 months of age or younger who are nonverbal and may have subtle signs and symptoms of a life-threatening reaction to allergens. The purpose of this article is to highlight the differential clinical presentations of young children with anaphylaxis.

Concepts: Immune system, Asthma, Mast cell, Symptoms, Symptom, Atopy, Medical sign, Allergen immunotherapy

28

Abstract Background: Saudi Arabia has a declining rate of breastfeeding and increasing levels of childhood asthma and atopic disease. In highly economically developed countries, breastfeeding of children at high risk of atopic disease reduces the likelihood of atopic dermatitis, wheezing associated with respiratory infections, and possibly asthma. This study investigated the prevalence of breastfeeding and its association with wheezing/asthma and atopic disease in 1-3-year-old children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study of children attending routine “well-baby” clinics in three Saudi State Hospitals in Riyadh. An interviewer administered a questionnaire to collect data on sociodemographics, breastfeeding, wheezing symptoms, asthma, and atopic disease. Results: In total, 622 children 1-3 years old were recruited. Of these, 75% of children were ever breastfed, and 36% of children were fully breastfed, with 20% of children being fully breastfed for ≥3 months. Increasing duration of full breastfeeding was associated with a reduced likelihood of maternal reporting of her child having “ever wheezed,” “wheezed' in the last 12 months,” and “ever having asthma,” with adjusted odds ratio for full breastfeeding ≥12 months versus never breastfed of 0.51 (95% confidence interval 0.29-0.90), 0.48 (0.26-0.88), and 0.46 (0.22-0.94), respectively. No associations were demonstrable between full or ever breastfeeding and atopic dermatitis/eczema, irrespective of family history of atopic disease. Conclusions: Although breastfeeding does not protect children from developing eczema in Riyadh, full breastfeeding is associated with reduced childhood wheezing and possibly asthma. Further efforts should be made to promote breastfeeding in Saudi Arabia.

Concepts: Asthma, Saudi Arabia, Arabian Peninsula, Riyadh, Mecca, Atopy, Jeddah, Ha'il