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Concept: Astronomical spectroscopy


Pancreatic lipase is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of diet-induced obesity in humans. In an ongoing search for new pancreatic lipase inhibitors from natural sources, a methanolic extract of marine brown algae, Eisenia bicyclis, showed a significant inhibitory effect against pancreatic lipase. Bioassay-guided isolation of this methanolic extract using a pancreatic lipase inhibitory assay led to the isolation and identification of six known phlorotannins: eckol (1), fucofuroeckol A (2), 7-phloroeckol (3), dioxindehydroeckol (4), phlorofucofuroeckol A (5), and dieckol (6). The structures were established on the basis of nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry spectroscopic data interpretation. Among the isolated phloroglucinol polymers, compounds 2 and 3 showed potent inhibitory effects on pancreatic lipase with IC(50) values ranging from 37.2 ± 2.3 to 12.7 ± 1.0 μM, respectively. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Concepts: Spectroscopy, Effect, Nuclear magnetic resonance, John Wiley & Sons, Isotope, Lipase, Astronomical spectroscopy, Pancreatic lipase


Based on 2,2':6',2'‘-terpyridine ligands (), five terpyridine derivatives, namely 4’-carbazol-9-yl-2,2':6',2'‘-terpyridine (), 4’-diphenylamino-2,2':6',2'‘-terpyridine (), 4’-bis(4-tert-butylphenyl)amino-2,2':6',2'‘-terpyridine (), 4’-[naphthalen-1-yl-(phenyl)amino]-2,2':6',2'‘-terpyridine (), 4’-[naphthalen-2-yl(phenyl)amino]-2,2':6',2'‘-terpyridine () and their corresponding Re(i) complexes (n = 1-6) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The X-ray crystal structure of has also been obtained. The luminescence spectra of , obtained in CH(2)Cl(2) solution at room temperature, show strong dπ (Re) → π* (diimine) MLCT character (λ(max) ∼ 600 nm) and a small red shift relative to . This, confirmed by the study of the triplet energy levels of the ligands at low temperature (77 K rigid matrix), indicates that the introduction of electron-donating moieties on the terpyridine unit decreases the triplet levels of the ligands, leading to a reduction of the energy gap between d and π* orbitals. In the solid state, upon MLCT excitation, all the complexes show an even stronger emission and a blue spectral shift (λ(max) ∼ 550 nm) compared to those obtained in solution.

Concepts: Spectroscopy, Light, Redshift, Solid, Physical quantities, Red, Astronomical spectroscopy, Quasar


Three new monoterpenoid indole alkaloids, named normavacurine-21-one (1), 5-hydroxy-19, 20-E-alschomine (2), and 5-hydroxy-19, 20-Z-alschomine (3), together with thirteen known indole alkaloids (4-16) were isolated from the leaves of Alstonia scholaris cultivated in Kunming. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, as well as by comparison with the reported spectroscopic data. The leaves of A. scholaris cultivated in Kunming, contained picrinine-type alkaloids, scholaricin-type alkaloids and nareline as major alkaloids. New compounds 1-3 might be derived from a common biogenetic precursor (5). Compounds 1, 5 and 10 exhibited significant antibacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis, and 3, 9 and 14 against Pseudomonas aeruginosa with an MIC value of 0.781μg/mL, while 14 showed moderate activity against Klepsiella pneumonia with an MIC value of 1.56μg/mL.

Concepts: Spectroscopy, Bacteria, Antibiotic resistance, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Astronomical spectroscopy, Alstonia, Alstonia scholaris


X-ray emission spectroscopy is a well-established technique used to study continuum lowering in dense plasmas. It relies on accurate atomic physics models to robustly reproduce high-resolution emission spectra, and depends on our ability to identify spectroscopic signatures such as emission lines or ionization edges of individual charge states within the plasma. Here we describe a method that forgoes these requirements, enabling the validation of different continuum lowering models based solely on the total intensity of plasma emission in systems driven by narrow-bandwidth x-ray pulses across a range of wavelengths. The method is tested on published Al spectroscopy data and applied to the new case of solid-density partially-ionized Fe plasmas, where extracting ionization edges directly is precluded by the significant overlap of emission from a wide range of charge states.

Concepts: Spectroscopy, Light, Electromagnetic radiation, Atomic physics, Astronomical spectroscopy, Emission spectroscopy


Two new spliceostatin derivatives, designed as spliceostatin H (1) and spliceostatin I (2), and one known compound FR901464 (3), were isolated from the strain Pseudomonas sp. HS-NF-1408. Their structures were determined by the comprehensive spectroscopic data, including 1D, 2D NMR, MS spectral analysis and comparison with data from the literature. Compound 1 exhibited potent cytotoxicity activity against A549 and HepG2 with IC50 values of 3.57 and 16.72 μg/ml, respectively.

Concepts: Spectroscopy, Physical chemistry, Pseudomonas, Chemical structure, Fourier transform spectroscopy, Astronomical spectroscopy


A new lupane triterpenoid, 23-O-trans-feruloylcylicodiscic acid (1), as well as four known analogues (2‒5), was isolated from the EtOAc fraction of Menyanthes trefoliata. The structure of compound 1 was elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, including 2D NMR data. The structures of the known compounds were established by comparison of their spectroscopic data with that in the literature. Compounds 1, 2, and 4 exhibited certain anti-NO production activities.

Concepts: Chemical structure, Fourier transform spectroscopy, Astronomical spectroscopy


It is reported in this paper that pressure can promote strong photoluminescence (PL) in MgO. The PL measurements of MgO powder indicate that it has no obvious luminescence at pressures lower than 13 GPa. PL starts to appear upon further compression and reaches a maximum intensity at about 35 GPa. The center of the emission band shows a red shift at lower pressures and turns to a blue shift as pressure exceeds 25 GPa. The PL is preserved upon complete decompression. The defects and micro-strain due to the plastic deformation of MgO are likely responsible for the origin of the luminescence.

Concepts: Redshift, Pressure, Atmospheric pressure, Pascal, Vacuum, Torr, Astronomical spectroscopy, Bar


Herein, we report on the stereospecific synthesis of two single isomers of tris-heteroleptic tris-cyclometalated iridium(III) (Ir(III)) complexes composed of three different nonsymmetric cyclometalating ligands via heteroleptic halogen-bridged Ir dimers [Ir(tpy)(F2ppy)(μ-Br)]217b and [Ir(mpiq)(F2ppy)(μ-Br)]227b (tpyH: (2-(4'-tolyl)pyridine) and F2ppyH: (2-(4',6'-difluorophenyl)pyridine), and mpiqH: (1-(4'-methylphenyl)isoquinoline)) prepared by Zn2+-promoted degradation of Ir(tpy)2(F2ppy) 21 and Ir(mpiq)2(F2ppy) 26, as reported by us. Subsequently, 17b and 27b were converted to the tris-heteroleptic tris-cyclometalated Ir complexes Ir(tpy)(F2ppy)(mpiq) 25 consisting of tpy, F2ppy, and mpiq, as confirmed by spectroscopic data and X-ray crystal structure analysis. The first important point in this work is the selective synthesis of specific isomers among eight possible stereoisomers of Ir complexes having the same combination of three cyclometalating ligands. Namely, two meridional forms of 25 were synthesized and isolated. The second finding is that the different stereoisomers of 25 have different stability. Finally, different stereoisomers exhibit different emission spectra. Namely, one of its stereoisomers 25a exhibits a single broad emission from ca. 550 nm to ca. 650 nm (orange emission), while stereoisomer 25c emits dual emission at ca. 509 nm and ca. 600 nm (pale pink emission), as supported by time-dependent density functional theory calculation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the selective and efficient synthesis of different stereoisomers of tris-heteroleptic tris-cyclometalated Ir(III) complexes that have different stabilities and different photophysical properties.

Concepts: Stereochemistry, Density functional theory, Synthesis, Stability, Isomer, Stereoisomerism, Astronomical spectroscopy, Structural isomer


Controlling the metal nanoclusters with atomic precision is highly difficult and further studies on their transformation reactions are even more challenging. Herein we report the controlled formation of a silver alloy nanocluster [AuAg19{S2P(OnPr)2}12] (1) from an Ag20 template via a galvanic exchange route. X-ray structural analysis reveals that the alloy structure comprises of a gold-centered Ag12 icosahedron, Au@Ag12, capped by seven silver atoms. Interestingly upon reacting with one equiv. of silver(i) salt, (1) can transform into a higher nuclearity nanocluster, [Au@Ag20{S2P(OnPr)2}12]+ (2). The conversion process is studied via ESI mass spectrometry and 31P NMR spectroscopy. This kind of size-structural transformation at the single atom level is quite remarkable. Furthermore, the compositions of all the doped nanoclusters (1, 2) were fully characterized with ESI-MS and EDS. The blue shift depicted in the UV-visible and emission spectra of the doped nanoclusters (1, 2) compared with the precursor, Ag20, demonstrates that the doping atoms have significant effects on the electronic structures.

Concepts: Spectroscopy, Mass spectrometry, Photon, Structure, Atom, Zinc, Isotope, Astronomical spectroscopy


Macrocyclic glycosides with unique 22-membered dimeric lactone skeleton, are rare occurring natural products. There are only ten compounds reported so far. Herein we reported the isolation and characterisation of five macrocyclic glycosides from Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani, including three new compounds (Schoenopolide A-C, 1-3) and two known ones, Berchemolide (4) and Clemoarmanoside B (5). Their structures were established on the basis of extensive analysis of spectroscopic data. In addition, the anti-oxidative activity of Berchemolide (4) against H2O2-induced of renal tubular epithelial (HK-2) cells was also evaluated.

Concepts: Data, Renal pelvis, Axiom of choice, Astronomical spectroscopy