Background Concerns remain about the safety of adding long-acting β2-agonists to inhaled glucocorticoids for the treatment of asthma. In a postmarketing safety study mandated by the Food and Drug Administration, we evaluated whether the addition of formoterol to budesonide maintenance therapy increased the risk of serious asthma-related events in patients with asthma. Methods In this multicenter, double-blind, 26-week study, we randomly assigned patients, 12 years of age or older, who had persistent asthma, were receiving daily asthma medication, and had had one to four asthma exacerbations in the previous year to receive budesonide-formoterol or budesonide alone. Patients with a history of life-threatening asthma were excluded. The primary end point was the first serious asthma-related event (a composite of adjudicated death, intubation, and hospitalization), as assessed in a time-to-event analysis. The noninferiority of budesonide-formoterol to budesonide was defined as an upper limit of the 95% confidence interval for the risk of the primary safety end point of less than 2.0. The primary efficacy end point was the first asthma exacerbation, as assessed in a time-to-event analysis. Results A total of 11,693 patients underwent randomization, of whom 5846 were assigned to receive budesonide-formoterol and 5847 to receive budesonide. A serious asthma-related event occurred in 43 patients who were receiving budesonide-formoterol and in 40 patients who were receiving budesonide (hazard ratio, 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.70 to 1.65]); budesonide-formoterol was shown to be noninferior to budesonide alone. There were two asthma-related deaths, both in the budesonide-formoterol group; one of these patients had undergone an asthma-related intubation. The risk of an asthma exacerbation was 16.5% lower with budesonide-formoterol than with budesonide (hazard ratio, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.74 to 0.94; P=0.002). Conclusions Among adolescents and adults with predominantly moderate-to-severe asthma, treatment with budesonide-formoterol was associated with a lower risk of asthma exacerbations than budesonide and a similar risk of serious asthma-related events. (Funded by AstraZeneca; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01444430 .).
In many European countries, medicines promotion is governed by voluntary codes of practice administered by the pharmaceutical industry under its own system of self-regulation. Involvement of industry organizations in policing promotion has been proposed to deter illicit conduct, but few detailed studies on self-regulation have been carried out to date. The objective of this study was to examine the evidence for promotion and self-regulation in the UK and Sweden, two countries frequently cited as examples of effective self-regulation.
Maintaining research and development (R&D) productivity at a sustainable level is one of the main challenges currently facing the pharmaceutical industry. In this article, we discuss the results of a comprehensive longitudinal review of AstraZeneca’s small-molecule drug projects from 2005 to 2010. The analysis allowed us to establish a framework based on the five most important technical determinants of project success and pipeline quality, which we describe as the five ‘R’s: the right target, the right patient, the right tissue, the right safety and the right commercial potential. A sixth factor - the right culture - is also crucial in encouraging effective decision-making based on these technical determinants. AstraZeneca is currently applying this framework to guide its R&D teams, and although it is too early to demonstrate whether this has improved the company’s R&D productivity, we present our data and analysis here in the hope that it may assist the industry overall in addressing this key challenge.
Interviewed by Ellen Clarke (Commissioning Editor, Future Science Group). Richard Goodfellow is Joint-CEO of Scancell Holdings plc, a public company listed on the London Stock Exchange. He has over 25 years international experience in the pharmaceutical industry, in Big Pharma and with Biotech companies. During his time at Astra, he oversaw the launch of Losec and other key products internationally. Thereafter, he held the post of Director of Licensing and New Business Development at Scotia Pharmaceuticals, where he was involved with the company’s flotation on the London Stock Exchange and successfully negotiated numerous deals. Goodfellow is also a founder of Paradigm Therapeutics, a Cambridge-based functional genomics company and is a former Director of Enact Pharma plc.
The pharmaceutical industry remains under huge pressure to address the high attrition rates in drug development. Attempts to reduce the number of efficacy- and safety-related failures by analysing possible links to the physicochemical properties of small-molecule drug candidates have been inconclusive because of the limited size of data sets from individual companies. Here, we describe the compilation and analysis of combined data on the attrition of drug candidates from AstraZeneca, Eli Lilly and Company, GlaxoSmithKline and Pfizer. The analysis reaffirms that control of physicochemical properties during compound optimization is beneficial in identifying compounds of candidate drug quality and indicates for the first time a link between the physicochemical properties of compounds and clinical failure due to safety issues. The results also suggest that further control of physicochemical properties is unlikely to have a significant effect on attrition rates and that additional work is required to address safety-related failures. Further cross-company collaborations will be crucial to future progress in this area.
Research and development (R&D) collaborations represent one approach chosen by the pharmaceutical industry to tackle current challenges posed by declining internal R&D success rates and fading of the blockbuster model. In recent years, a flexible concept to collaborate in R&D has emerged: virtual pharmaceutical companies (VPCs). These differ from other R&D companies, such as biotech start-ups, collaborating with big pharmaceutical companies, because they solely comprise experienced teams of managers. VPCs have only been described anecdotally in literature. Thus, we present here the characteristics of a VPC and suggest how big pharma can leverage the concept of VPCs by introducing five possible modes of collaboration. We find that one mode, investing, is particularly promising for big pharma.
Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) represents an aggressive form of thyroid malignancy. Some may occur spontaneously or can be associated with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia syndromes, or Familial Medullary Thyroid Cancer syndrome. In these patients, the protooncogene RET (rearranged during transfection) is mutated. In patients who have unresectable or metastatic disease, the long term prognosis is poor. New treatments for this disease have focused on the use of targeted agents that inhibit the receptor tyrosine kinase of RET. One of these treatments, Vandetanib (Caprelsa, Astra Zeneca), recently has received approval from the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of patients with progressive locally advanced and/or metastatic disease. This review highlights the studies that led to the drug’s approval, and discusses on the potential financial costs of treatment and side effects of this therapy. The main clinical studies evaluating Vandetanib for the treatment of other solid tumors will also be reviewed.
Although carbapenem susceptibility testing has been recommended for all Enterobacteriaceae from clinical specimens, for practical reasons a carbapenem is not included in many primary antibiotic panels for urine specimens. The ‘iCREST’ study sought carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) in routine urine specimens yielding Gram-negative growth in five diagnostic laboratories in the UK. We sought also to compare locally and centrally determined MICs of meropenem and ceftazidime/avibactam.
Solid-liquid partitioning is one of the main fate processes determining the removal of micropollutants in wastewater. Little is known on the sorption of micropollutants in biofilms, where molecular diffusion may significantly influence partitioning kinetics. In this study, the diffusion and the sorption of 23 micropollutants were investigated in novel moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) carriers with controlled biofilm thickness (50, 200 and 500 μm) using targeted batch experiments (initial concentration = 1 μg L(-1), for X-ray contrast media 15 μg L(-1)) and mathematical modelling. We assessed the influence of biofilm thickness and density on the dimensionless effective diffusivity coefficient f (equal to the biofilm-to-aqueous diffusivity ratio) and the distribution coefficient Kd,eq (L g(-1)). Sorption was significant only for eight positively charged micropollutants (atenolol, metoprolol, propranolol, citalopram, venlafaxine, erythromycin, clarithromycin and roxithromycin), revealing the importance of electrostatic interactions with solids. Sorption equilibria were likely not reached within the duration of batch experiments (4 h), particularly for the thickest biofilm, requiring the calculation of the distribution coefficient Kd,eq based on the approximation of the asymptotic equilibrium concentration (t > 4 h). Kd,eq values increased with increasing biofilm thickness for all sorptive micropollutants (except atenolol), possibly due to higher porosity and accessible surface area in the thickest biofilm. Positive correlations between Kd,eq and micropollutant properties (polarity and molecular size descriptors) were identified but not for all biofilm thicknesses, thus confirming the challenge of improving predictive sorption models for positively charged compounds. A diffusion-sorption model was developed and calibrated against experimental data, and estimated f values also increased with increasing biofilm thickness. This indicates that diffusion in thin biofilms may be strongly limited (f ≪ 0.1) by the high biomass density (reduced porosity).
Exenatide once weekly (ExeOW, Bydureon(®), Astra Zeneca), a drug belonging to the class of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists, is the first agent approved for treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D) that can be administered on a weekly basis.