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Concept: Ascending colon


Intussusception is uncommon in adults. To our knowledge, synchronous colocolic intussusceptions have never been reported in the literature. Here we described the case of a 59-year-old female of synchronous colocolic intussusceptions presenting as acute abdomen that was diagnosed by CT preoperatively. Laparotomy with radical right hemicolectomy and sigmoidectomy was undertaken without reduction of the invagination due to a significant risk of associated malignancy. The final diagnosis was synchronous adenocarcinoma of proximal transverse colon and sigmoid colon without lymph nodes or distant metastasis. The patient had an uneventful recovery. The case also emphasizes the importance of thorough exploration during surgery for bowel invagination since synchronous events may occur.

Concepts: Large intestine, Sigmoid colon, Lymph node, Colectomy, Ascending colon, Peritoneum, Cancer, Medical terms


Colonic ameboma is a rare inflammatory pseudo-tumor of the colon that can mimic cancer development. This case was located in the cecum and appeared malignant from a macroscopic view. Accordingly a right hemicolectomy was performed, followed by an end-to-side ileocolic anastomosis. The pathology study enabled us to correct the diagnosis and affirm its amebic origin.

Concepts: Ascending colon, Cecum, Oncology, Large intestine, Digestive system, Colon, Pathology, Cancer


This study aims to characterize the in vivo Raman spectroscopic properties of normal colorectal tissues and to assess distinctive biomolecular variations of different anatomical locations in the colorectum for cancer diagnosis. We have developed a novel 785 nm excitation fiber-optic Raman endoscope that can simultaneously acquire in vivo fingerprint (FP) spectra (8001800 cm-1) and high-wavenumber (HW) Raman spectra (28003600 cm-1) from the subsurface of colorectal tissue. We applied the FP/HW Raman endoscope for in vivo tissue Raman measurements of various normal colorectal anatomical locations (i.e. ascending colon (n=182), transverse colon (n=249), descending colon (n=124), sigmoid (n=212), and rectum (n=362)) in 50 subjects. Partial least squares (PLS) - discriminant analysis (DA) was employed to evaluate the inter-anatomical variability. The normal colorectal tissue showed a subtle inter-anatomical variability in molecular constituents (i.e., proteins, lipids and water content) and could be divided into three major clusterings: (1) ascending colon, transverse colon, (2) descending colon, and (3) sigmoid and rectum. The PLS-DA multiclass algorithms were able to identify different tissue sites with varying sensitivities (SE) and specificities (SP) (ascending colon: SE: 1.10%, SP: 91.02, transverse colon: SE: 14.06%, SP: 78.78, descending colon: SE: 40.32%, SP: 81.99, sigmoid: SE: 19.34%, SP: 87.90, rectum: SE: 71.55%, SP: 77.84). The inter-anatomical molecular variability was orders of magnitude less than neoplastic tissue transformation. Further PLS-DA modeling on in vivo FP/HW tissue Raman spectra yielded a diagnostic accuracy of 88.8% (sensitivity: 93.9% (93/99); specificity 88.3% (997/1129) for colorectal cancer detection. This work discloses that inter-anatomical Raman spectral variability of normal colorectal tissue is subtle compared to cancer tissue; and the simultaneous FP/HW Raman endoscopic technique has promising potential for real-time, in vivo diagnosis of colorectal cancer at the molecular level.

Concepts: Colorectal cancer, Rectum, Peritoneum, Colon, Sigmoid colon, Ascending colon, Sigmoidoscopy, Cancer


Complete mesocolic excision for right-sided colon cancer may offer an oncologically superior excision compared to traditional right hemicolectomy through high vascular tie and adherence to embryonic planes during dissection, supported by preoperative scanning to accurately define the tumour lymphovascular supply and drainage. The authors support and recommend precision oncosurgery based on these principles, with an emphasis on the importance of understanding the vascular anatomy. However, the anatomical variability of the right colic artery (RCA) has resulted in significant discord in the literature regarding its precise arrangement.

Concepts: Dissection, Conservatism, Biology, Ascending colon, Anatomy, Right colic artery, Colon, Cancer


Diversity and composition of microbial communities was compared across the 13 major sections of the digestive tract (esophagus, reticulum, rumen, omasum, abomasum, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, and rectum) in two captive populations of American bison (Bison bison), one of which was finished on forage, the other on grain.

Concepts: Colon, Peritoneum, Cecum, Sigmoid colon, Digestion, Ascending colon, Midgut, Digestive system


Metastatic colorectal carcinoma (mCRC) is a heterogeneous disease with differing outcomes and clinical responses and poor prognosis. CRCs can be characterised by their primary tumour location within the colon. The left-sided colon, derived from the hindgut, includes the distal third of the transverse colon, splenic flexure, descending colon, sigmoid colon and rectum. The right-sided colon, derived from the midgut, includes the proximal two-thirds of the transverse colon, ascending colon and caecum. Sometimes, the rectum is described separately, despite originating from the hindgut, and in many clinical series, the left-sided colon includes only tumours within and distal to the splenic flexure. Differences in the microbiome, clinical characteristics and chromosomal and molecular characteristics have been reported between the right and left side of the colon, regardless of how this is defined. There is now strong evidence from clinical studies in patients with mCRC for the prognostic effect of primary tumour location. The impact of primary colonic tumour location on response to treatment is now under investigation in a large number of clinical studies in patients with mCRC. In this review, we summarise the microbiome, clinical, chromosomal and molecular differences associated with the primary location of CRC. We present an overview of the proven prognostic impact of primary tumour location for patients with mCRC and discuss emerging data for the predictive impact of primary tumour location on clinical outcome.

Concepts: Descending colon, Peritoneum, Colorectal cancer, Sigmoid colon, Hindgut, Ascending colon, Cancer, Colon


A previously well 76-year-old woman underwent elective colonoscopy for the investigation of persistent rectal bleeding and abdominal pain. The procedure was prolonged owing to the presence of a redundant sigmoid colon, and considerable manipulation was required in order to advance to the cecum. After the procedure, sudden abdominal distention developed, with signs of peritoneal irritation. A chest radiograph obtained while the patient was in the upright position showed a tension pneumoperitoneum with medial displacement of the liver (Panel A, arrow), raising concern about torsion of vessels in the porta hepatis. A radiograph of the abdomen showed Rigler’s sign - air . . .

Concepts: Gallbladder, Abdomen, Ascending colon, Sigmoid colon, Abdominal pain, Rectum, Peritoneum, Liver


Granular cell tumours (GCTs) are rare soft tissue tumours originating from Schwann cells. Due to potential malignant transformation, complete endoscopic resection should be aimed for. We report on a 49-year-old patient with two synchronous GCTs found in the caecum and the ascending colon, respectively. Synchronous endoscopic full-thickness resection (EFTR) using an all-in-one full-thickness resection device (FTRD) was performed under propofol sedation. Completeness of resection was proven histologically. No adverse events occurred. We report safe and complete simultaneous EFTR of two synchronous colonic GCTs.

Concepts: Secretion, Ascending colon, Cecum, Oncology, Theodor Schwann, Colon, Soft tissue sarcoma, Cancer


The treatment results of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for colorectal lesions have improved markedly, but some lesions remain difficult to treat. Hence the cecum is considered a technically challenging site for ESD. We examined the feasibility of ESD for cecal lesions.

Concepts: Digestive system, Ascending colon, Colonoscopy, Cecum, Colon, Large intestine


Bowel involvement in endometriosis is uncommon and is most frequently located in the sigmoid colon and the rectum. We present a case in a 37-year-old woman of a cecal endometrioid mass complicated with an ileocolic intussusception which extended beyond the splenic colon flexure. Careful manual extraction allowed a reduction of the intussusceptum, followed by an oncological right hemicolectomy. The patient suffered postoperative ileus, which was spontaneously solved. Intussusception is infrequent in the adult population and usually involves the small bowel. The great majority of ileocolic intussusceptions have a malignant origin (cecal adenocarcinoma). An endometriotic mass located at the cecum as the lead point for ileocolic intussusception is an extremely rare presentation. On reviewing the literature, we found only 13 reports with no other cases extending beyond the splenic flexure, as occurred in our patient.

Concepts: Hindgut, Cancer, Rectum, Bowel obstruction, Ascending colon, Digestive system, Colon, Large intestine