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Concept: Asbestos and the law

145

Asbestos is a harmful and exceptionally persistent natural material. Malignant mesothelioma (MM), an asbestos-related disease, is an insidious, lethal cancer that is poorly responsive to current treatments. Minimally invasive, specific, and sensitive biomarkers providing early and effective diagnosis in high-risk patients are urgently needed. MicroRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) are endogenous, non-coding, small RNAs with established diagnostic value in cancer and pollution exposure. A systematic review and a qualitative meta-analysis were conducted to identify high-confidence miRNAs that can serve as biomarkers of asbestos exposure and MM.

Concepts: Cancer, Oncology, Medical terms, MicroRNA, Mesothelioma, Asbestos, Asbestos and the law, Wittenoom, Western Australia

132

Malignant mesothelioma caused by asbestos exposure has a long latency period. A ban on asbestos use may not be apparent in decreased incidence in the population until after several decades. The aim was to evaluate changes in the incidence of malignant mesothelioma, and the possible impact of the asbestos ban implemented in Iceland in 1983.

Concepts: Cancer, Mesothelioma, Asbestos, Asbestos and the law, Wittenoom, Western Australia

125

Inhalation of asbestos fibres is the predominant cause of malignant mesothelioma. Domestic exposure to asbestos is a major community concern in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) because of loose-fill asbestos home insulation. Little is known about how trends in mesothelioma rates in the ACT compare with those elsewhere. The objective of this study was to describe trends in mesothelioma rates in the ACT and compare them with those for the rest of Australia.

Concepts: Cancer, Australia, Mesothelioma, Asbestos, New South Wales, Australian Capital Territory, Asbestos and the law, Jervis Bay Territory

121

Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a deadly cancer mainly caused by previous exposure to asbestos. With a latency period up to 50 years the incidence of MM is still increasing, even in countries that banned asbestos. Secondary prevention has been established to provide persons at risk regular health examinations. An earlier detection with tumor markers might improve therapeutic options. Previously, we have developed a new blood-based assay for the protein marker calretinin. Aim of this study was the verification of the assay in an independent study population and comparison with the established marker mesothelin.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Cancer, Oncology, Mesothelioma, Asbestos, Asbestos and the law, Wittenoom, Western Australia, Calretinin

114

Malignant mesothelioma is closely associated to asbestos exposure. One such exposure may occur through contact with occupationally exposed household members and their belongings. This study examines the features of pleural mesothelioma attributable only to asbestos brought home by another family member.

Concepts: Cancer, Household, Mesothelioma, Asbestos, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Asbestos and the law, Trieste, Wittenoom, Western Australia

43

Malignant mesothelioma is an aggressive, almost uniformly fatal tumor, caused primarily by exposure to asbestos. In this study, serum presence of mesothelioma-specific protein transcript variants of ecto-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide oxidase disulfide-thiol exchanger 2 (ENOX2), a recently identified marker of malignancy, were investigated using the ONCOblot tissue of origin cancer detection test.

Concepts: DNA, Cancer, Oncology, Adenosine triphosphate, RNA, Mesothelioma, Asbestos, Asbestos and the law

24

The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential value of certain biomarkers in predicting the presence of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) in individuals environmentally exposed to asbestos.

Concepts: Cancer, Mesothelioma, Asbestos, Asbestos and the law, Wittenoom, Western Australia

22

To describe the incidence of malignant mesothelioma (MM) in Aboriginal people in Western Australia (WA) and determine the main routes of exposure to asbestos in this population.

Concepts: Cancer, Mesothelioma, Asbestos, Indigenous Australians, Asbestos and the law, Wittenoom, Western Australia

21

Malignant mesothelioma (MM) has distinct histological subtypes (epithelioid, sarcomatoid and biphasic) with variable behaviour and prognoses. It is well recognised that survival time varies with the histological subtype of MM. It is not known, however, if asbestos exposure characteristics (type of asbestos, degree of exposure) are associated with different histological subtypes.

Concepts: Cancer, Mesothelioma, Asbestos, Type theory, Polymorphism in object-oriented programming, Data types, Asbestos and the law, Wittenoom, Western Australia

19

Asbestos is a known human carcinogen, with evidence for malignant mesothelioma (MM), cancers of lung, ovary, larynx and possibly other organs. MM rates are predicted to increase with a power of time since first exposure (TSFE), but the possible long-term attenuation of the trend is debated. The asbestos ban enforced in Italy in 1992 gives an opportunity to measure long-term cancer risk in formerly exposed workers.

Concepts: Cancer, Metastasis, Oncology, Lung cancer, Mesothelioma, Carcinogen, Asbestos, Asbestos and the law