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Concept: Artificial kidney


Patients with end stage renal disease often fail to follow prescribed dietary and fluid regimen, leading to undesirable outcomes. This study aimed to examine and identify factors influencing dietary, fluid, medication and dialysis compliance behaviours in patients undergoing hemodialysis.

Concepts: Renal failure, Chronic kidney disease, Kidney, Nephrology, Erythropoietin, Hemodialysis, Peritoneum, Artificial kidney


Few studies have been published on the control of oral anticoagulation treatment in end stage renal disease (ESRD).

Concepts: Chronic kidney disease, Medicine, Epidemiology, Artificial kidney


Undocumented immigrants with end-stage renal disease have variable access to hemodialysis in the United States despite evidence-based standards for frequency of dialysis care.

Concepts: Renal failure, Chronic kidney disease, Nephrology, Erythropoietin, United States, Hemodialysis, Artificial kidney, Immigration to the United States


The long-term survival for many chronic kidney failure patients who remain treated by dialysis in economically advanced countries remains similar to that of those with solid-organ malignancy, despite a disproportionate amount of health-care expenditure. As such, the current paradigm of three times weekly in-center hemodialysis for 4 h or shorter sessions needs to change to improve patient outcomes. Although more frequent and longer dialysis sessions have been reported to improve cardiovascular risk surrogates and short-term outcomes, these options are only practically available to a very small fraction of the total dialysis population. As such, radically new approaches are required to improve patient outcomes and quality of life for the majority of dialysis patients. Currently, two different approaches are being developed, wearable devices based on current dialysis techniques and more futuristic implantable devices modeled on the natural nephron.Kidney International advance online publication, 13 February 2013; doi:10.1038/ki.2012.466.

Concepts: Time, Renal failure, Chronic kidney disease, Kidney, Nephrology, Dialysis, Hemodialysis, Artificial kidney


Depression is associated with a poorer prognosis in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Increasing evidence indicates that glial pathology and blood-brain-barrier (BBB) dysfunction are involved in the pathophysiology of depression. S100B, a protein expressed in astro- and oligodendroglia in the human brain is considered a biomarker of depression. Our objective was to investigate the relationship between S100B and depressive symptoms in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD).

Concepts: Chronic kidney disease, Kidney, Neuron, Brain, Disease, Human brain, Major depressive disorder, Artificial kidney


Providing maintenance hemodialysis is associated with high costs and poor outcomes. In Nigeria, more than 90% of the population lives below the poverty line, and patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) pay out-of-pocket for maintenance hemodialysis. To highlight the challenges of providing maintenance hemodialysis for patients with ESRD in Nigeria, we reviewed records of all patients who joined the maintenance hemodialysis program of our dialysis unit over a 21-month period. Information regarding frequency of hemodialysis, types of vascular access for dialysis, mode of anemia treatment and frequency of blood transfusion received were retrieved. One hundred and twenty patients joined the maintenance hemodialysis program of our unit during the period under review. Seventy-two (60%) were males and the mean age of the study population was 47 + 14 years. The mean hemoglobin concentration at commencement of dialysis was 7.3 g/dL + 1.6 g/dL. The initial vascular access was femoral vein cannulation in all the patients. A total of 73.5% of the patients required blood transfusion at some point with 33% receiving five or more pints of blood. Only 3.3% of the patients had thrice weekly dialysis, 21.7% dialyzed twice weekly, 23.3% once weekly, 16.7% once in two weeks, 2.5% once in three weeks and 11.7% once monthly. At the time of review, 8.3% of the patients had died while 38.3% were lost to follow-up. Majority of patients with ESRD on maintenance hemodialysis in our unit were poorly prepared for dialysis, were under-dialyzed, and were frequently transfused with blood with resultant poor outcomes.

Concepts: Renal failure, Chronic kidney disease, Erythropoietin, Dialysis, Poverty, Hemodialysis, Artificial kidney, Blood transfusion


AIM: Treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD) includes parenteral iron therapy, and these infusions can lead to iron overload. Secondary iron overload is typically treated with iron chelators, of which deferasirox is one of the most promising. However, it has not been studied in patients with CKD and iron overload. METHODS: A pilot study was conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and safety of deferasirox in 8 haemodialysis-dependent patients, who were receiving intravenous iron for treatment of anaemia of CKD. Deferasirox was administered at two doses (10 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg), either acute (once daily for two days) or steady-state (once daily for two weeks). RESULTS: A dose of 10 mg/kg in either protocol was not sufficient to achieve a plasma concentration in the therapeutic range (acute peak 14.1 and steady-state 22.8 μmol/l), while 15 mg/kg in either protocol maintained plasma concentration well above this range (acute peak 216 and steady-state 171 μmol/l). Plasma concentration observed at 15 mg/kg was well above that expected for this dose (40-50 μmol/l), although no adverse clinical events were observed. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the need to profile drugs such as deferasirox in specific patient groups, such as those with CKD and iron overload.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Chronic kidney disease, Erythropoietin, Medicine, Medical terms, Dose, Artificial kidney, Routes of administration


The care and outcome of patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) on chronic hemodialysis is directly dependent on their hemodialysis access. A brachiocephalic fistula (BCF) is commonly placed in the elderly and in patients with a failed lower-arm, or radiocephalic, fistula. However, there are numerous complications such that the BCF has an average patency of only 3.6 years. A leading cause of BCF dysfunction and failure is stenosis in the arch of the cephalic vein near its junction with the axillary vein, which is called cephalic arch stenosis (CAS). Using a combined clinical and computational investigation, we seek to improve our understanding of the cause of CAS, and to develop a means of predicting CAS risk in patients with a planned BCF access. This paper details the methodology used to determine the hemodynamic consequences of the post-fistula environment and illustrates detailed results for a representative sample of patient-specific anatomies, including a single, bifurcated, and trifurcated arch. It is found that the high flows present due to fistula creation lead to secondary flows in the arch owing to its curvature with corresponding low wall shear stresses. The abnormally low wall shear stress locations correlate with the development of stenosis in the singular case that is tracked in time for a period of one year.

Concepts: Chronic kidney disease, Dialysis, Force, Shear stress, Artificial kidney, Axillary vein, Cephalic vein, Basilic vein


Long life expectancy and wide development of therapies have increased the number of patients under artificial treatment for lost kidney function or dialysis. Different options for vascular access are suitable for receiving this therapy. The use of tunneled catheters has consequently increased complications related to its use. A difficult retrieval of catheters caused by a hard fibrin sheath along its trajectory is a common drawback. Herein, we report a woman with suspicion of hemodialysis catheter infection and an irretrievable Tesio catheter. A novel technique using a Fogarty arterial catheter allowed a successful retrieval and avoided an aggressive management.

Concepts: Chronic kidney disease, Nephrology, Dialysis, Hemodialysis, Renal replacement therapy, Catheters, Artificial kidney, Urinary catheterization


Hyperphosphatemia is a common problem in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who are on maintenance hemodialysis (HD) and contributes to the development of secondary hyperparathyroidism and cardiovascular complications. Nicotinamide (NAM) has been shown in some studies to inhibit intestinal and renal sodium/phosphorus co-transporters and reduce serum phosphorus levels. We have therefore evaluated the efficacy and safety of NAM as adjunctive therapy to calcium-based phosphate binders to control hyperphosphatemia in hemodialysis patients.

Concepts: Renal failure, Chronic kidney disease, Kidney, Nephrology, Artificial kidney, Hyperparathyroidism, Renal osteodystrophy, Hyperphosphatemia