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Concept: Armed forces

178

On July 13, 2015, U.S. Defense Secretary Ashton Carter announced that the military anticipates lifting its ban on service by transgender persons, those whose gender identity does not match the sex that they were assigned at birth. Although an estimated 12,800 transgender personnel currently serve in the U.S. armed forces (see table for explanations of estimates), they must conceal their gender identity because military policy bans them from serving and prohibits military doctors from providing transition-related care. Although some transgender people do not change their bodies to match their gender identities, government agencies, courts, and scientists agree that for many, transition-related . . .

Concepts: Gender, Gender role, Gender identity, Transgender, Third gender, Armed forces, Homosexuality, United States Department of Defense

29

Abstract Evidence across a multitude of contexts indicates that social support is associated with reduced risk for mental health symptoms. More information is needed on the effectiveness of different sources of support, as well as sex differences in support. Associations between social support from two sources - the military unit and friends and family - and mental health symptoms were examined in a study of 1571 Marine recruits assessed at the beginning and end of a highly stressful 13-week training program. Military social support buffered the stressor exposure-posttraumatic stress symptomatology (PTSS) relationship, whereas the relationship between stressor exposure and PTSS was highest when civilian social support was high. Further inspection of the interactions revealed that military support was most important at high levels of stressor exposure. Sex differences in the relationship between social support and symptoms were found, such that support from military peers was associated with lower levels of PTSS for men, whereas civilian support was associated with lower PTSS for women. While civilian social support was associated with lower levels of depression symptom severity in both women and men, the relationship was stronger for women. Reviewed implications focus on the importance of considering the recipient, source, and context of social support.

Concepts: Male, Gender, Symptoms, Symptom, Military, Armed forces, Army, Military logistics

29

Armed conflicts have been prevalent throughout history, in some cases having very great consequences. To win, one needs to understand the characteristics of an armed conflict and be prepared with resources and capabilities for responding to its specific challenges. An important tool for understanding these characteristics and challenges is a model–an abstraction of the field of conflict. Models have evolved through the years, addressing different conflict scenarios with varying techniques.

Concepts: Armed forces, Military history

19

Since December 2006, more than a thousand cities in México have suffered the effects of the war between several drug cartels, amongst themselves, as well as with Mexican armed forces. Sources are not in agreement about the number of casualties of this war, with reports varying from 30 to 100 thousand dead; the economic and social ravages are impossible to quantify. In this work we analyze the official report of casualties in terms of the location and the date of occurrence of the homicides. We show how the violence, as reflected by the number of casualties, has increased over time and spread across the country. Next, based on the correlations between cities in the changes of the monthly number of casualties attributed to organized crime, we construct a narco-war network where nodes are the affected cities and links represent correlations between them. We find that close geographical distance between violent cities does not imply a strong correlation amongst them. We observe that the dynamics of the conflict has evolved in short-term periods where a small core of violent cities determines the main theatre of the war at each stage. This kind of analysis may also help to describe the emergence and propagation of gang-related violence waves.

Concepts: Violence, Suffering, Terrorism, Armed forces, Torture, War, Mexican Army, Mexican Drug War

5

Sexual and other forms of gender-based violence are common in conflict settings and are known risk factors for mental health and psychosocial wellbeing. We present findings from a systematic review of the academic and grey literature focused on the effectiveness of mental health and psychosocial support interventions for populations exposed to sexual and other forms of gender-based violence in the context of armed conflicts.

Concepts: Aggression, Conflict, Violence, Literature, Terrorism, Armed forces, Violence against women, War

4

A college freshman reports a sexual assault and is met with harassment and insensitive investigative practices leading to her suicide. Former grade school students, now grown, come forward to report childhood abuse perpetrated by clergy, coaches, and teachers-first in trickles and then in waves, exposing multiple perpetrators with decades of unfettered access to victims. Members of the armed services elect to stay quiet about sexual harassment and assault during their military service or risk their careers by speaking up. A Jewish academic struggles to find a name for the systematic destruction of his people in Nazi Germany during the Holocaust. These seemingly disparate experiences have in common trusted and powerful institutions (schools, churches, military, government) acting in ways that visit harm upon those dependent on them for safety and well-being. This is institutional betrayal. The purpose of this article is to describe psychological research that examines the role of institutions in traumatic experiences and psychological distress following these experiences. We demonstrate the ways in which institutional betrayal has been left unseen by both the individuals being betrayed as well as the field of psychology and introduce means by which to identify and address this betrayal. (PsycINFO Database Record © 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

Concepts: Psychology, Education, Sociology, All rights reserved, Adolf Hitler, Armed forces, Nazi Germany, The Holocaust

3

Armed conflict increasingly involves civilian populations, and health care needs may be immense. We hypothesized that sex disparities may exist among persons receiving operative care in conflict zones and sought to describe predictors of disparity.

Concepts: Health care, Health disparities, Armed forces

3

Physical fitness is one of the most important qualities in armed forces personnel. However, little is known about the association between the military environment and the occupational and leisure-time dimensions of the physical activity practiced there. This study assessed the association of rank, job stress and psychological distress with physical activity levels (overall and by dimensions).

Concepts: Exercise, Cognition, Space, Military, Armed forces, Navy, Soldier, Military history

2

Little is known about the social and emotional well-being of children whose fathers have been deployed to the conflicts in Iraq/Afghanistan or who have post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).AimsTo examine the emotional and behavioural well-being of children whose fathers are or have been in the UK armed forces, in particular the effects of paternal deployment to the conflicts in Iraq or Afghanistan and paternal PTSD.

Concepts: United Kingdom, Complex post-traumatic stress disorder, Posttraumatic stress disorder, Stress, Armed forces, Royal Air Force

2

The UK military was continuously engaged in armed conflict in Iraq and Afghanistan between 2003 and 2014, resulting in 629 UK fatalities. Traumatic cardiac arrest (TCA) is a precursor to traumatic death, but data on military outcomes are limited. In order to better inform military treatment protocols, the aim of this study was to define the epidemiology of TCA in the military population with a particular focus on survival rates and injury patterns.

Concepts: Cardiac arrest, United Kingdom, Germany, Canada, NATO, Military of the United States, Armed forces, Tony Blair