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Concept: Aripiprazole


Abstract A series of new 5-piperidinyl and 5-piperazinyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2(3H)-ones have been synthesized and evaluated for dual D2 and 5-HT1A receptor binding affinities. The synthesized ligands are structurally related to bifeprunox, a potential atypical antipsychotic, having potent D2 receptor antagonist and 5-HT1A receptor agonist properties. The Suzuki-Miyaura reaction of cyclic vinyl boronate with appropriate aryl halide yielded arylpiperidine, which was eventually transformed to piperidinyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2(3H)-one. The reductive amination of the latter with appropriate biarylaldehdyes rendered the synthesis of 5-piperidinyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2(3H)-ones. Likewise, the Buchwald-Hartwig coupling reactions of 1-boc-piperazine with appropriate aryl halide and subsequent removal of the boc group rendered arylpiperazine. The reductive amination of the latter with appropriate biarylaldehdyes accomplished the synthesis of 5-piperazinyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2(3H)-ones. The structure-activity relationship studies showed that cyclopentenylpyridine and cyclopentenylbenzyl groups contribute significantly to the dual D2 and 5-HT1A receptor binding affinities of these compounds.

Concepts: Receptor, Ligand, Receptor antagonist, Dopamine receptor, Agonist, Atypical antipsychotic, Inverse agonist, Aripiprazole


A novel series of arylpiperazinylalkyl 2-benzoxazolones and 2-benzothiazolones 18-38 was designed, synthesized and tested to evaluate their affinity for the 5-HT7 and 5-HT1A receptors. Compounds with a 2-benzothiazolone nucleus generally had affinity values higher than the corresponding 2-benzoxazolone compounds. In particular, derivatives possessing a six or seven carbon chain linker between 2-benzothiazolone and arylpiperazine had Ki values in the subnanomolar range for the 5-HT1A receptor and in the low nanomolar range for the 5-HT7 receptor, indicating that they may be interesting dual ligands. Molecular modeling studies revealed different docking poses for the investigated compounds in homology models of 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptors, which explained their experimentally determined affinities and general low selectivity. Additionally, structural interaction fingerprints analysis identified the important amino acid residues for the specific interactions of long-chain arylpiperazines within the binding pockets of both serotonin receptors.

Concepts: Protein, Amino acid, Receptor, Cell signaling, Serotonin, 5-HT receptor, Aripiprazole, 5-HT1A receptor


Atypical antipsychotic drugs (APDs) have been hypothesized to show reduced extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) due to their rapid dissociation from the dopamine D2 receptor. However, support for this hypothesis is limited to a relatively small number of observations made across several decades and under different experimental conditions. Here we show that association rates, but not dissociation rates, correlate with EPS. We measured the kinetic binding properties of a series of typical and atypical APDs in a novel time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay, and correlated these properties with their EPS and prolactin-elevating liabilities at therapeutic doses. EPS are robustly predicted by a rebinding model that considers the microenvironment of postsynaptic D2 receptors and integrates association and dissociation rates to calculate the net rate of reversal of receptor blockade. Thus, optimizing binding kinetics at the D2 receptor may result in APDs with improved therapeutic profile.Atypical antipsychotics show reduced extrapyramidal side effects compared to first generation drugs. Here the authors use time-resolved FRET to measure binding kinetics, and show that side effects correlate with drug association rates to the D2 receptor, while dissociation rates correlate with prolactin elevation.

Concepts: Dopamine receptor, Antipsychotic, Schizophrenia, Atypical antipsychotic, Dopamine, Dopamine receptor D2, Risperidone, Aripiprazole


Adolescent drug users display resistance to treatment such as cue exposure therapy (CET), as well as increased liability to relapse. The basis of CET is extinction learning, which involves dopamine signaling in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). This system undergoes dramatic alterations during adolescence. Therefore, we investigated extinction of a cocaine-associated cue in adolescent and adult rats. While cocaine self-administration and lever-alone extinction were not different between the two ages, we observed that cue extinction reduced cue-induced reinstatement in adult but not adolescent rats. Infusion of the selective dopamine 2 receptor (D2R)-like agonist quinpirole into the infralimbic cortex (IL) of the mPFC prior to cue extinction significantly reduced cue-induced reinstatement in adolescents. This effect was replicated by acute systemic treatment with the atypical antipsychotic aripiprazole (Abilify), a partial D2R-like agonist. These data suggest that adolescents may be more susceptible to relapse due to a deficit in cue extinction learning, and highlight the significance of D2R signaling in the IL for cue extinction during adolescence. These findings inspire new tactics for improving adolescent CET, with aripiprazole representing an exciting potential pharmacological adjunct for behavioral therapy.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Brain, Dopamine receptor, Frontal lobe, Schizophrenia, Atypical antipsychotic, Bipolar disorder, Aripiprazole


Sleep-related eating disorder is characterized by parasomnia with recurrent episodes of nocturnal eating or drinking during the main sleep period. Several drugs, including atypical antipsychotics, induce sleep-related eating disorder. However, aripiprazole has not previously been associated with sleep-related eating disorder.

Concepts: Antipsychotic, Atypical antipsychotic, Aripiprazole


A single exposure to drugs of abuse is sufficient to induce behavioral sensitization, which is a form of long-lasting neuroplasticity. Dopamine D2 receptors are the main receptor for antipsychotic drugs, but little is known about their role in a single methamphetamine-induced behavioral sensitization. In the present study, we examined whether typical antipsychotic haloperidol and atypical antipsychotic risperidone, both targeting dopamine D2 receptor, could prevent the methamphetamine sensitization when they were given at the different phase of behavioral sensitization. A single methamphetamine exposure induced robust and reliable behavioral sensitization to the lower challenge dose of methamphetamine after 7 days of drug-free period. At doses that did not affect general locomotion, haloperidol and risperidone not only significantly attenuated methamphetamine induced hyperlocomotion, but also completely prevented the development of behavioral sensitization to methamphetamine challenge when they were pretreated before the first exposure to methamphetamine. When haloperidol and risperidone were given in the early period of transfer (2 hours after the first methamphetamine exposure), they also dose-dependently attenuated the transfer to expression of methamphetamine sensitization from the hyperlocomotion. These data suggest that dopamine D2 receptors play an important role in methamphetamine sensitization, especially in protecting against the development and transfer in the earlier labile period after the methamphetamine exposure. Therefore, clinically approved dopamine D2 receptor antagonists may be useful in the treatment of methamphetamine addiction.

Concepts: Dopamine receptor, Tardive dyskinesia, Typical antipsychotic, Antipsychotic, Schizophrenia, Atypical antipsychotic, Dopamine receptor D2, Aripiprazole


This paper presents a computer-aided insight into the receptor-ligand interaction for novel analogs of the lead structure 5-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-(2-hydroxy-3-(4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl)propyl)-5-methylimidazolidine-2,4-dione (1, MF-8), as part of the search for potent and selective serotonin 5-HT7 receptor (5-HT7R) agents. New hydantoin derivatives (4-19) were designed and synthesized. For 5-phenyl-3-(2-hydroxy-3-(4-(2-ethoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl)propyl)-5-methylimidazolidine-2,4-dione (4), its crystal structure was determined experimentally. Molecular modeling studies were performed, including both pharmacophore and structure-based approaches. New compounds were investigated in radioligand binding assays (RBA) for their affinity toward 5-HT7R and selectivity over 5-HT1AR, dopamine D2R and α1-, α2-and β-adrenoceptors. Selected compounds (5-8) were assessed for their antidepressant and anxiolytic effects in vivo in mice. Most of the tested compounds displayed potent affinity and selectivity for 5-HT7R in RBA, in particular seven compounds (4, 5, 7, 8 and 10-12,Ki ≤ 10 nM). Antidepressant-like activity in vivo for all tested compounds (5-8) was confirmed. SAR analysis based on both crystallography-supported molecular modeling and RBA results indicated that mono-phenyl substituents at both hydantoin and piperazine are more favorable for 5-HT7R affinity than the di-phenyl ones.

Concepts: Signal transduction, Serotonin, Agonist, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Norepinephrine, Molecular modelling, 5-HT receptor, Aripiprazole


To report a novel case of drug-induced angle-closure from aripiprazole (Abilify), an atypical antipsychotic, and propose a mechanism for this association.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Atypical antipsychotic, Ciliary body, Aripiprazole, Atypical antipsychotics, Akathisia


To evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of aripiprazole, a dopamine D2 receptor partial agonist, as maintenance treatment in adolescent outpatients with schizophrenia.

Concepts: Dopamine receptor, Serotonin, Agonist, Schizophrenia, Dopamine receptor D2, Aripiprazole


A series of carboxamide and sulfonamide alkyl (p-xylyl and benzyl) 1-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazine (o-OMe-PhP) and 1-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)piperazine (2,3-DCPP) analogs were prepared and tested for their affinity to bind to serotonin 5-HT1A /5-HT6 /5-HT7 and dopamine D2 receptors. This chemical modification let us explore the impact of the replacement of the carboxamide by the sulfonamide group on the affinity changes. In both the o-OMe-PhP and 2,3-DCPP series, the relative activities of the carboxamides versus sulfonamides toward the 5-HT1A /5-HT6 /5-HT7 and D2 receptors show similar trends. Varied or similar activities for particular receptors were found for the carboxamides/sulfonamides with p-xylyl spacer, while of the two classes of carboxamides and sulfonamides examined, benzyl derivatives of the sulfonamides displayed the highest serotoninergic affinity, in particular to the 5-HT7 receptors (Ki 8-85 nM). The Ki values revealed that, irrespective of the carboxamide/sulfonamide zone, both p-xylyl and benzyl derivatives had the highest affinity for the dopamine D2 receptor (i.e., 16 out of 24 compounds investigated have an affinity below 100 nM). A molecular modeling study of carboxamide 9a and sulfonamide 9b showed that their binding effects to each of 5-HT1A R and D2 R created binding modes interaction with different conserved receptors residues. Structural similarities of carboxamide 9a in complexes with a 5-HT1A R (9aI) and D2 R (9aII) are over 83%, while the respective similarities of sulfonamide 9b structures (9bI/9bII) are only about 40%.

Concepts: Dopamine receptor, G protein coupled receptors, Schizophrenia, Dopamine receptor D2, Adenosine A2A receptor, Aripiprazole