Concept: ARIA Charts
To examine the prevalence of glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON) in a medium myopic to highly myopic group of patients and its association with parapapillary gamma zone and parapapillary delta zone.
Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to an increased risk of osteoporosis. Vitamin D deficiency has reached high levels in the Saudi population, but there is conflicting evidence both in the Saudi population, and worldwide, regarding the existence of a correlation between these low vitamin D levels and reduced BMD (bone mineral density), or osteoporosis.
The prevalence of hypertension is high and is increasing worldwide, whereas the proportion of controlled hypertension is low.
Rates of adolescent obesity and overweight are high. The offspring of overweight parents are at increased risk of becoming obese later in life. Investigating neural correlates of familial obesity risk and current overweight status in adolescence could help identify biomarkers that predict future obesity and that may serve as novel targets for obesity interventions.
Low fertility increases descendant socioeconomic position but reduces long-term fitness in a modern post-industrial society.
- Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society
- Published over 8 years ago
Adaptive accounts of modern low human fertility argue that small family size maximizes the inheritance of socioeconomic resources across generations and may consequently increase long-term fitness. This study explores the long-term impacts of fertility and socioeconomic position (SEP) on multiple dimensions of descendant success in a unique Swedish cohort of 14 000 individuals born during 1915-1929. We show that low fertility and high SEP predict increased descendant socioeconomic success across four generations. Furthermore, these effects are multiplicative, with the greatest benefits of low fertility observed when SEP is high. Low fertility and high SEP do not, however, predict increased descendant reproductive success. Our results are therefore consistent with the idea that modern fertility limitation represents a strategic response to the local costs of rearing socioeconomically competitive offspring, but contradict adaptive models suggesting that it maximizes long-term fitness. This indicates a conflict in modern societies between behaviours promoting socioeconomic versus biological success. This study also makes a methodological contribution, demonstrating that the number of offspring strongly predicts long-term fitness and thereby validating use of fertility data to estimate current selective pressures in modern populations. Finally, our findings highlight that differences in fertility and SEP can have important long-term effects on the persistence of social inequalities across generations.
Appendicitis is the most common abdominal surgical emergency worldwide. Differences between high- and low-income settings in the availability of laparoscopic appendectomy, alternative management choices, and outcomes are poorly described. The aim was to identify variation in surgical management and outcomes of appendicitis within low-, middle-, and high-Human Development Index (HDI) countries worldwide.
Slow relaxation: Exergonic high-spin→low-spin relaxation after photoexcitation has been found to be exceedingly slow in a class of iron(II) complexes with hexadentate imine ligands. The thermal activation barriers that arise between the quintet- and singlet-spin manifolds are the highest ever recorded for spin crossover of isolated molecules in free solution.
The six-coordinate cobalt(II) complex of formula [Co(tppz)2](tcm)2 exhibits a thermally induced spin-crossover behavior from a high spin (S = (3)/2) at higher temperatures to a low spin (S = (1)/2) at lower temperatures, with the low-spin phase being achieved at T ≤ 200 K.
Although platelet reactivity during P2Y12-inhibitors is associated with stent thrombosis (ST) and bleeding, standardized and clinically validated thresholds for accurate risk stratification after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) are lacking. We sought to determine the prognostic value of low platelet reactivity (LPR), optimal platelet reactivity (OPR), or high platelet reactivity (HPR) by applying uniform cut-off values for standardized devices.
Bleeding complications after percutaneous transcatheter interventions that used large-bore catheters are frequent and associated with high mortality and morbidity.