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Concept: Apophony

113

The rising number of young people going to university has led to concerns about an increasing demand for student mental health services. We aimed to assess whether provision of mindfulness courses to university students would improve their resilience to stress.

Concepts: Health care, Randomized controlled trial, University, Positive psychology, Youth, Elasticity, Student, Apophony

26

Abstract Hormesis is the process by which small stresses build resilience to large stresses. We pre-exposed rats to various parameters of mild-to-moderate stress prior to traumatic stress in the present experiments to assess the potential benefits of hormetic training on resilience to traumatic, uncontrollable stress. Rats underwent varying stress pre-training parameters prior to exposure to uncontrollable traumatic stress in the learned helplessness procedure. The ability to prevent the exaggerated fear responding and escape deficits that normally follow experience with traumatic stress were used as a measure of the benefits of hormetic training. Four experiments examined the effects of number of training sessions, stressor severity, and pattern of rest between pre-training stress sessions. Repeated exposure to mild restraint stress or moderate shock stress eliminated both the enhanced fear conditioning and shuttle-escape deficits that result from exposure to traumatic, inescapable shock. The pattern of rest did not contribute to resilience when the pre-exposure stressor was mild, but was vital when the pre-exposure stressor was moderate, with an alternation of stress and rest being the most effective procedure. The data also suggests that the level of resilience may increase with the number of pre-exposure sessions.

Concepts: Psychological trauma, C, Classical conditioning, Fear, Hypovolemia, Learned helplessness, Hormesis, Apophony

17

Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) is associated with a number of adverse health outcomes, but potential mechanisms are largely unknown. Metabolomics represents a powerful approach to study global metabolic changes in response to environmental exposures. We therefore conducted this study to investigate changes in serum metabolites in response to the reduction of PM exposure among healthy college students.

Concepts: Health, Metabolism, Nutrition, Energy, Metabolomics, Metabolome, Apophony

6

An increasing number of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) studies are being conducted with nonclinical populations, but very little is known about their effectiveness.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Stress, Chronic stress, Apophony

0

A reliable biomarker for quantifying pain or hyperalgesia has yet to be found. A surrogate marker of arginine vasopressin, copeptin, is elevated in a number of states of physiological and psychological stress and may have a role in quantifying pain and/or hyperalgesia.

Concepts: Medical terms, Neuroscience, Marker, Grammatical number, Apophony

0

Cognitions are starting to receive more prominence as important when examining a number of factors including the topography of challenging behaviour. This study examined the relationships between maternal stress, challenging behaviour (aggressive and self-injurious behaviours) and parental cognitions and specifically whether maternal cognitions mediated the effect of challenging behaviour on parenting stress.

Concepts: Psychology, Mother, Behaviorism, Apophony

0

Young adult cancer survivors have a number of increased health and psychosocial risks. To minimize these risks, they must address any modifiable risk factors, for example increase their physical activity (PA) and reduce stress. Unfortunately, more than half of young survivors remain sedentary, and few participate in a structured form of relaxation. This study evaluated the feasibility, acceptability, and effects of a theory-based PA and meditation intervention for young survivors.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Cancer, Risk, Obesity, Randomized controlled trial, Overweight, Weight loss, Apophony

0

Discordant results were reported on the clinical expression of subjects bearing the D1152H CFTR mutation, and also for the small number of cases reported so far.

Concepts: DNA, Cancer, Evolution, Apophony

0

Relaxation-training, as an anxiety-reducer intervention, plays an important role in fetal health. The present study aimed to analyze the effect of maternal relaxation on stress test (NST), basal fetal heart rate, and number of fetal heart accelerations.

Concepts: Time, Epidemiology, Clinical trial, Randomized controlled trial, Pharmaceutical industry, Chronic stress, Apophony

0

We sought to determine the maximal tolerated dose of the MEK inhibitor trametinib with weekly paclitaxel, with a view to exploring the combination’s activity in melanoma lacking a BRAF V600 mutation.

Concepts: Chemotherapy, Apophony