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Concept: Aphrodisiac

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Data concerning the impact of amphetamine on male sexual functions are limited, although amphetamine has been used as an aphrodisiac.

Concepts: Aphrodisiac

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Tribulus terrestris as a herbal remedy has shown beneficial aphrodisiac effects in a number of animal and human experiments. This study was designed as a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial to assess the safety and efficacy of Tribulus terrestris in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder during their fertile years. Sixty seven women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder were randomly assigned to Tribulus terrestris extract (7.5 mg/day) or placebo for 4 weeks. Desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain were measured at baseline and after 4 weeks after the end of the treatment by using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Two groups were compared by repeated measurement ANOVA test.

Concepts: Sexual intercourse, Test method, Sexual arousal, Sexual dysfunction, Hypoactive sexual desire disorder, Aphrodisiac, Libido, Tribulus terrestris

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Historically, aphrodisiacs have had a reputation for making sex more achievable and satisfying. It has been long believed that Tribulus terrestris L. (TT), an annual plant of the family Zygophyllaceae, possesses aphrodisiac properties purportedly attributed to its ability to influence levels or mimic function of sex hormones. Due to this appealing beliefs, the popularity of medicinal products from TT is expanding at a remarkable pace among consumers who are attempting to enhance their sexual health. However, reliable scientific evidence supporting these purported bioactivities are scant and far from conclusive.

Concepts: Health, Annual plant, Perennial plant, Lettuce, Aphrodisiac, Tribulus terrestris, Zygophyllaceae, Tribulus

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ABSTRACT Tribulus terrestris (TT) is a dicotyledonous herbal plant of the Zygophyllaceae family. In ancient medicine, extracts of the aerial parts and fruits have been used for its diuretic, tonic, and aphrodisiac properties. Today, TT is widely used by athletes and bodybuilders based on the belief, fueled by claims in marketing information, that it can enhance testosterone concentrations. To assess TT’s effect on testosterone levels in human and animals, an electronic literature search out using seven databases and the patent database up to August 2013 was carried out. Randomized control trials, which included healthy human subjects ingesting TT as sole or combined supplement, along with animal studies with TT as a sole treatment across a number of species were included. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria, including one patent application. The results showed that trials varied in duration, dosage and supplementation with TT as sole or combined treatment, rendering meta-analysis impossible. A limited number of animal studies displayed a significant increase in serum testosterone levels after TT administration, but this effect was only noted in humans when TT was part of a combined supplement administration. Literature available for the effectiveness of TT on enhancing testosterone concentrations is limited. Evidence to date suggests that TT is ineffective for increasing testosterone levels in humans, thus marketing claims are unsubstantiated. The nitric oxide release effect of TT may offer a plausible explanation for the observed physiological responses to TT supplementation, independent of the testosterone level.

Concepts: Evidence-based medicine, Systematic review, Randomized controlled trial, Testosterone, Meta-analysis, Aphrodisiac, Tribulus terrestris, Zygophyllaceae

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Cyperus esculentus tubers (tiger nut) are one of the ancient food sources known to humanity. It is traditionally used in the Middle East to stimulate sexual arousal in men. However, there has been no scientific evidence about its assumed aphrodisiac properties. This study aimed to investigate the influence of tiger nut on the copulatory behavior of sexually active male rats.

Concepts: Sexual intercourse, Middle East, Asia, Human sexual behavior, Near East, Ancient history, Aphrodisiac, Cyperus esculentus

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OBJECTIVE: Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) has shown beneficial aphrodisiac effects in some animal and human studies. The aim of the present study was to assess the safety and efficacy of saffron on selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor-induced sexual dysfunction in women. METHODS: This was a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study. Thirty-eight women with major depression who were stabilized on fluoxetine 40 mg/day for a minimum of 6 weeks and had experienced subjective feeling of sexual dysfunction entered the study. The patients were randomly assigned to saffron (30 mg/daily) or placebo for 4 weeks. Measurement was performed at baseline, week 2, and week 4 using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Side effects were systematically recorded. RESULTS: Thirty-four women had at least one post-baseline measurement and completed the study. Two-factor repeated measure analysis of variance showed significant effect of time × treatment interaction [Greenhouse-Geisser’s corrected: F(1.580, 50.567) = 5.366, p = 0.012] and treatment for FSFI total score [F(1, 32) = 4.243, p = 0.048]. At the end of the fourth week, patients in the saffron group had experienced significantly more improvement in total FSFI (p < 0.001), arousal (p = 0.028), lubrication (p = 0.035), and pain (p = 0.016) domains of FSFI but not in desire (p = 0.196), satisfaction (p = 0.206), and orgasm (p = 0.354) domains. Frequency of side effects was similar between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: It seems saffron may safely and effectively improve some of the fluoxetine-induced sexual problems including arousal, lubrication, and pain. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Concepts: Antidepressant, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Orgasm, Sexual arousal, Saffron, Crocus, Sexual function, Aphrodisiac

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Sexual concordance is defined as the association between genital response and self-reported sexual arousal. Though one might predict a strong association between sexual concordance and awareness of other internal physiological sensations (termed interoception), past research on sexually healthy women has not found these different domains to be related. The aim of the present study was to test the association between interoception and sexual concordance in a clinical sample of women with Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder (SIAD). Fifty-two women with SIAD completed the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA), a validated self-report measure of interoception, and completed a heart-beat accuracy test, an objective measure of interoception. They also participated in a laboratory-based assessment of physiological sexual arousal and self-reported sexual arousal while viewing an erotic film. Mental and physiological arousal were correlated at r = 0.27 (range -0.80 to 0.95). There was no significant association between sexual concordance and women’s heartrate awareness. However, five aspects of interoceptive awareness (noticing, emotional awareness, self-regulation, body-listening, and trusting), were predictive of lower, and one aspect (not-distracting) was predictive of higher sexual concordance. We discuss the findings in relation to the role of emotions and arousal states in the interoception-sexual concordance relationship.

Concepts: Sexual intercourse, Future, Human sexuality, Erotica, Emotion, Sexual arousal, Aphrodisiac

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Sailuotong (SLT) is a standardised herbal medicine formula consisting of Panax ginseng, Ginkgo biloba, and Crocus sativus, and has been designed to enhance cognitive and cardiovascular function.

Concepts: Medicinal plants, Ginseng, Ginkgo biloba, Ginkgo, Panax, Panax ginseng, Aphrodisiac

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Yohimbine is an alkaloid that has been encountered on the streets as an aphrodisiac, hallucinogen, dietary supplement and erectile dysfunction drug. Yohimbine hydrochloride is an alpha 2-adrenoreceptor antagonist, blocking the pre- and postsynaptic alpha-2 adrenoreceptors and causing an increased release of noradrenaline and dopamine. An average oral dose of 5-15 mg produces a therapeutic whole blood level range of 40-400 ng/mL. Overdoses leading to neurotoxic effects have been seen with blood concentrations up to 5,000 ng/mL. The laboratories from the Maricopa County Medical Examiner and the Los Angeles County Department of Coroner each encountered a case in which yohimbine was identified in whole blood by means of a liquid-liquid basic drug extraction with detection on a GC-MS. Because validated quantitative methods for yohimbine did not exist at either facility, both agencies referred the blood specimens to NMS Labs, Inc. The reference laboratory analyzed the blood specimens with an LC-MS-MS and determined the quantitative values of yohimbine to be 7,400 and 5,400 ng/mL. Given the absence of other significant positive findings and the substantial yohimbine blood concentrations cited, the respective Medical Examiners determined the cause of death to be acute yohimbine intoxication with the mode being an accident. Yohimbine is a rarely encountered drug in medical examiner casework, and interpretation of the results is difficult to assess toward the cause and manner of death without such case studies being described.

Concepts: Scientific method, Evaluation methods, Qualitative research, Case study, Yohimbine, Coroner, Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor, Aphrodisiac

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Tribulus terrestris has been used as an aphrodisiac. However, little is known about the effects and mechanism of action of T. terrestris on penile erection. Therefore, the effect of a T. terrestris extract and the mechanism of action of the extract on relaxation of the corpus cavernosum (CC) were investigated. The erectogenic effects of an oral preparation of the extract were also assessed.

Concepts: Sexual intercourse, Andrology, Penis, Erection, Sexual arousal, Aphrodisiac, Tribulus terrestris