Concept: Aortic aneurysm
To investigate whether oral fluoroquinolone use is associated with an increased risk of aortic aneurysm or dissection.
Takayasu’s arteritis is an inflammatory arteriopathy which involves the aorta and its major branches, causing mainly stenosis of their lumen, though aneurysmal lesions can also occur. A young female with Takayasu’s disease presented to our hospital with acute lung oedema due to severe aortic insufficiency and ascending aorta dilatation. She had already undergone distal ascending aorta and hemiarch replacement due to Standford type A aortic dissection five years ago. The patient had also undergone reconstruction of abdominal arteries' stenoses with extraanatomical bypass. We performed a Bentall procedure with a valved conduit and implantation of the coronary ostia as buttons on the conduit. A mechanical valved graft was used instead of a bioprosthesis, due to possible early degradation of a bioprosthesis. The postoperative course was uneventful and the one year follow-up was normal. Valve-sparing aortic root replacement should be avoided in Takayasu’s arteritis due to high rate of recurrent regurgitation.
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a pathological condition characterized by an abnormal, localized dilatation of the lower part of the aorta. Due to a lack of data on the natural history of AAA and risk of death from other cardiovascular diseases attributable to AAA, the true number of AAA-attributable deaths may be higher than currently estimated. This study aims to produce more realistic estimates of the burden of AAA.
We sought to describe and analyze discrepancies between sexes in the outcomes of patients hospitalized for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (rAAA) by conducting a retrospective analysis of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. The review included all adult patients (≥18 years old) hospitalized with a primary diagnosis of rAAA between January 2002 and December 2014. In-hospital mortality differences between females and males were analyzed overall and separately among those receiving endovascular AAA repair (EVAR) or open AAA repair (OAR). In-hospital mortality for females declined from 61.0% in 2002 to 49.0% in 2014 (P for trend <0.001), while mortality for males declined from 48.6% in 2002 to 32.2% in 2014 (P for trend <0.001). Among those receiving EVAR, females were significantly more likely to die in the hospital than males (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.44; 95% CI, 1.12-1.84). In addition, the odds of mortality among those receiving OAR were higher for females than males (adjusted OR, 1.14; 95% CI: 1.00-1.31). These data provide evidence that despite overall decreasing trends in mortality for both sexes, females remain at higher risk of death compared with males regardless of surgical repair procedure.
Valve-sparing aortic root reconstruction (VSRR) is an accepted method to treat patients with aortic root dilation. The role of the VSRR is less well defined for patients with bicuspid aortic valve, severe aortic valve insufficiency, congenital heart defects, and type A aortic dissection. We studied the clinical outcome of patients who underwent VSRR for expanded indications.
Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) in patients with unfavorable proximal seal zones remains challenging. The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence of proximal extension cuff usage for type I endoleaks in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms and unfavorable necks treated with the C3 Excluder repositionable endoprosthesis compared with the traditional Excluder stent-graft.
The long-term success of the endovascular procedure for the treatment of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAAs ) depends on the secure fixation of the proximal end and the geometry of the stent-graft (SG) device. Variations in SG types can affect proximal fixation and SG hemodynamics. Such hemodynamic variations can have a catastrophic effect on the vascular system and may result from a SG/arterial wall compliance mismatch and the sudden decrease in cross-sectional area at the bifurcation, which may result in decreased distal perfusion, increased pressure wave reflection and increased stress at the interface between the stented and non-stented portion of the vessel. To examine this compliance mismatch, a commercial SG device was tested experimentally under a physiological pressure condition in a silicone AAA model based on computed tomography scans. There was a considerable reduction in compliance of 54% and an increase in the pulse wave velocity of 21%, with a significant amount of the forward pressure wave being reflected. To examine the SG geometrical effects, a commercial bifurcated geometry was compared computationally and experimentally with a geometrical taper in the form of a blended section, which provided a smooth transition from the proximal end to both iliac legs. The sudden contraction of commercial SG at the bifurcation region causes flow separation within the iliac legs, which is known to cause SG occlusion and increased proximal pressure. The blended section along the bifurcation region promotes a greater uniformity of the fluid flow field within the distal legs, especially, during the deceleration phase with reduced boundary layer reversal. In order to reduce the foregoing losses, abrupt changes of cross-section should be avoided. Geometrical tapers could lead to improved clinical outcomes for AAA SGs.
Purpose: To describe a bailout technique for in situ fenestration of an inadvertently covered internal iliac artery (IIA) associated with endovascular repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Technique: The procedure is demonstrated in a 76-year-old patient who underwent elective repair of a 5-cm infrarenal AAA using an Excluder endovascular graft 2 years following thoracic aortic stent-graft repair of a chronic type B aortic dissection. A completion angiogram demonstrated unintentional coverage of the left IIA. The iliac limb of the stent-graft was not able to be displaced away from the ostium, so to preserve IIA perfusion in a patient with prior thoracic aortic stent-grafting, a bailout technique was performed using an Outback re-entry device to successfully fenestrate the polytetrafluoroethylene graft material. An iCast balloon-expandable stent was placed across the fenestration creating a patent side branch to maintain patency. Six-year follow-up demonstrates a stable repair. Conclusion: In situ fenestration of a stent-graft overlying the internal iliac artery can be a useful bailout technique when other options are unsuccessful.
A 60 year-old woman presented with large extensive aneurysms in the thoracic aorta and infra-renal abdominal aorta with a normal segment of visceral aorta in between; the entire right common iliac artery was also aneurysmal. Concurrent endovascular repair of all aneurysmal regions was successfully performed using a left common iliac artery conduit to access the aorta, and multiple stent-grafts; a chimney graft preserved blood flow into the left subclavian artery. There were no features of spinal cord ischaemia despite coil embolisation of the right hypogastric artery. CT angiogram at six months showed patent stent-grafts with no endoleaks. The patient continued to do well at one-year clinical follow-up. Concurrent endovascular repair of thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysms can be safely and successfully performed when anatomically feasible, and is an attractive alternative to staged or hybrid repair.
To evaluate factors associated with aortic enlargement in patients with a bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) and the impact of isolated aortic valve replacement (AVR).