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Concept: Antipyretic


The use of antipyretics to manage the febrile child is becoming increasingly popular. Paracetamol and ibuprofen are the most commonly used interventions to manage fever in children; however, there have been no comparative analyses. The aim of the study is to evaluate the evidence comparing paracetamol to ibuprofen in the treatment of fever in children.

Concepts: Systematic review, Influenza, Child, Paracetamol, Ibuprofen, Aspirin, Fever, Antipyretic


Fever or Pyrexia means abnormal rise in body temperature above the usual range of normal in response to a variety of infectious, immunological and neoplastic stimuli. To normalize these febrile conditions, several synthetic agents are in clinical practice such as acetaminophen, ibuprofen, and aspirin. However, they are having many side effects which sometimes challenge their applications. The various sources are under investigation worldwide to overcome issues of unwanted effects and to better therapeutic response. In this scenario botanicals such as alkaloids, the most widely distributed and studied plant secondary metabolites, could effectively produce the molecules with better antipyretic effect and safety profile. The current review deals with 21 isolated alkaloids from 14 plants species having some antipyretic effect in preliminary screening/preclinical studies with the possible mechanism and structural edges. Therefore, these alkaloids of plant origin are candidates for further detail studies to ascertain their mechanism(s) and clinical utility or as lead compounds for future drugs.

Concepts: Plant, Hyperthermia, Paracetamol, Ibuprofen, Aspirin, Fever, Codeine, Antipyretic


OBJECTIVE: To review the literature and test the hypothesis that the use of antipyretic drugs in children with acute infections slows recovery. STUDY DESIGN: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature was undertaken to investigate the effect of antipyretic drugs upon recovery from infectious diseases in children. A search of Medline (1946 until November 2012) and EMBASE (1980 until November 1, 2012) was undertaken to identify studies in which the authors compared the use of antipyretic medications with nonpharmacologic treatments for fever. RESULTS: Six papers were identified, 5 of which were included in the meta-analysis. Three studies focused on children with malaria and the other 3 considered general viral and respiratory infections and varicella. The pooled mean difference in time to fever clearance was 4.16 hours and was faster in those receiving antipyretics compared with those not (95% CI -6.35 to -1.96 hours; P = .0002). There was little evidence of statistical heterogeneity (χ(2) 4.84; 4 df; P = .3; I(2) 17%). CONCLUSION: There is no evidence from these studies that the use of antipyretics slows the resolution of fever in children.

Concepts: Medicine, Infectious disease, Malaria, Infection, Ibuprofen, Aspirin, Fever, Antipyretic


Parents often do not consider fever as an important physiological response and mechanism of defense against infections that leads to inappropriate use of antipyretics and potentially dangerous side effects. This study is designed to evaluate the appropriateness of antipyretics dosages generally administered to children with fever, and to identify factors that may influence dosage accuracy.

Concepts: Influenza, Paracetamol, Ibuprofen, Aspirin, Fever, Morality, Antipyretic


Objective. To identify the percentage of parents who define the threshold for fever between 38.0°C and 38.3°C, which has not been reported previously, and to describe parental attitudes toward fever and antipyretic use. Study Design. Thirteen-question survey study of caregivers. Results. Overall, 81% of participants defined the threshold for fever as <38.0°C, 0% correctly defined fever between 38.0°C and 38.3°C, and 19% defined fever as >38.3°C. Twenty percent of children brought to clinic for a chief complaint of fever were never truly febrile. Ninety-three percent of participants believed that high fever can cause brain damage. For a comfortable-appearing child with fever, 89% of caregivers reported that they would give antipyretics and 86% would schedule a clinic visit. Conclusion. Our finding that 0% of parents correctly defined fever is both surprising and unsettling, and it should inform future discussions of fever between parents and clinicians.

Concepts: Fever, Antipyretic


The non-prescription medication paracetamol (acetaminophen, APAP) is currently recommended as a safe pain and fever treatment during pregnancy. However, recent studies suggest a possible association between APAP use in pregnancy and offspring neurodevelopment.

Concepts: Ibuprofen, Aspirin, Hydrocodone, Antipyretic


To investigate the antipyretic mechanism of Herba Ephedrae (Eph)-Ramulus Cinnamomi (RC) herb pair on yeast-induced pyrexia in rats.

Concepts: Fever, Antipyretic


Cleome scaposa has been associated with the prevention of many diseases as fever, abdominal complaints and cancer. But its antipyretic effect is not reported so far. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of C. scaposa in reducing temperature in Baker’s yeast-induced fever model of rabbits. Rabbits were randomized into 4 groups (n = 24). Fever was induced in by Saccharomyces cerevisae (3 mL/kg of 10% suspension subcutaneous) in all study groups. Afterward, group 1, 2, 3 and 4 were orally administered with paracetamol 150 mg/kg b. wt., distilled water, C. scaposa 250 and 500 mg/kg b. wt. respectively. 500 mg/kg dosage was selected after dose fixation study. The standard control was paracetamol. Rectal temperature was recorded with the help of a digital thermometer. ANOVA followed by post hoc test was applied for statistical analysis of results. Results of the study indicate that C. scaposa possesses antipyretic activity comparable to that of standard drug paracetamol as it exhibited comparable antipyretic potential against baker’s yeast-induced fever in rabbits. This study confirms the traditional use of C. scaposa in fever. So, it can be an alternative therapeutic choice in fever. However, specific constituents responsible for its antipyretic activity should be evaluated.

Concepts: Statistics, Effectiveness, Thermodynamics, Aspirin, Analysis of variance, Medical thermometer, Thermometer, Antipyretic


Fever is a regulated increase in body temperature and a component of the acute-phase response, triggered mainly after the invasion of pathogens in the body. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated during the physiological and pathological processes, and can act as both signaling molecules as well as promoters of oxidative stress. Male Wistar rats, pretreated with oral doses of acetaminophen, celecoxib, dipyrone, or ibuprofen 30 min before an intravenous lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or sterile saline injection, showed a reduced febrile response in all animals tested. The formation of ROS in the fresh blood, liver, brown adipose tissue (BAT), and hypothalamus of febrile and antipyretic-treated animals was assessed by electron paramagnetic resonance using the spin probe 1-hydroxy-3-methoxycarbonyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidine (CMH). While the CM• concentrations remained unaltered in the blood samples examined 5 h after the induction of fever, we found increased CM• levels in the liver (in µM, saline: 290 ± 42; LPS: 512 ± 34), BAT (in µM, saline: 509 ± 79, LPS: 855 ± 79), and hypothalamus (in µM, saline: 292 ± 35; LPS: 467 ± 8) at the same time point. Importantly, none of the antipyretics were seen to alter the CM• accumulation profile. Data from this study suggest that there is an increased formation of ROS in the different tissues during fever, which may cause oxidative stress, and that the antipyretics tested do not interfere with ROS production.

Concepts: Oxygen, Oxidative phosphorylation, Reactive oxygen species, Hydrogen peroxide, Ibuprofen, Aspirin, Fever, Antipyretic


Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is a widely used analgesic and antipyretic drug that is safe at therapeutic doses. However, acetaminophen overdose can be fatal. Currently, the only treatment available is the N-acetyl cysteine. The diterpene kaurenoic acid (ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid, KA) is the major constituent of Sphagneticola trilobata (L.) Pruski. KA presents anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive and antioxidant properties. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of KA in a model of acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. KA increased, in a dose-dependent manner, the survival rate after acetaminophen overdose. KA reduced acetaminophen-induced hepatic necrosis and ALT and AST levels. KA decreased acetaminophen-induced neutrophil and macrophage recruitment, oxidative stress and the production of IL-33, TNF-α and IL-1β, alongside with normalisation of IL-10 levels in the liver. Therefore, KA showed preclinical efficacy in acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity and lethality.

Concepts: Antioxidant, Liver, Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Paracetamol, Glutathione, Aspirin, Acetylcysteine, Antipyretic