The use of antipyretics to manage the febrile child is becoming increasingly popular. Paracetamol and ibuprofen are the most commonly used interventions to manage fever in children; however, there have been no comparative analyses. The aim of the study is to evaluate the evidence comparing paracetamol to ibuprofen in the treatment of fever in children.
Fever or Pyrexia means abnormal rise in body temperature above the usual range of normal in response to a variety of infectious, immunological and neoplastic stimuli. To normalize these febrile conditions, several synthetic agents are in clinical practice such as acetaminophen, ibuprofen, and aspirin. However, they are having many side effects which sometimes challenge their applications. The various sources are under investigation worldwide to overcome issues of unwanted effects and to better therapeutic response. In this scenario botanicals such as alkaloids, the most widely distributed and studied plant secondary metabolites, could effectively produce the molecules with better antipyretic effect and safety profile. The current review deals with 21 isolated alkaloids from 14 plants species having some antipyretic effect in preliminary screening/preclinical studies with the possible mechanism and structural edges. Therefore, these alkaloids of plant origin are candidates for further detail studies to ascertain their mechanism(s) and clinical utility or as lead compounds for future drugs.
The non-prescription medication paracetamol (acetaminophen, APAP) is currently recommended as a safe pain and fever treatment during pregnancy. However, recent studies suggest a possible association between APAP use in pregnancy and offspring neurodevelopment.
OBJECTIVE: To review the literature and test the hypothesis that the use of antipyretic drugs in children with acute infections slows recovery. STUDY DESIGN: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature was undertaken to investigate the effect of antipyretic drugs upon recovery from infectious diseases in children. A search of Medline (1946 until November 2012) and EMBASE (1980 until November 1, 2012) was undertaken to identify studies in which the authors compared the use of antipyretic medications with nonpharmacologic treatments for fever. RESULTS: Six papers were identified, 5 of which were included in the meta-analysis. Three studies focused on children with malaria and the other 3 considered general viral and respiratory infections and varicella. The pooled mean difference in time to fever clearance was 4.16 hours and was faster in those receiving antipyretics compared with those not (95% CI -6.35 to -1.96 hours; P = .0002). There was little evidence of statistical heterogeneity (χ(2) 4.84; 4 df; P = .3; I(2) 17%). CONCLUSION: There is no evidence from these studies that the use of antipyretics slows the resolution of fever in children.
Parents often do not consider fever as an important physiological response and mechanism of defense against infections that leads to inappropriate use of antipyretics and potentially dangerous side effects. This study is designed to evaluate the appropriateness of antipyretics dosages generally administered to children with fever, and to identify factors that may influence dosage accuracy.
No randomized study has been conducted for intravenous paracetamol (acetaminophen, APAP) for fever management due to infection. This is a study for a new ready-made infusion of paracetamol.
Objective. To identify the percentage of parents who define the threshold for fever between 38.0°C and 38.3°C, which has not been reported previously, and to describe parental attitudes toward fever and antipyretic use. Study Design. Thirteen-question survey study of caregivers. Results. Overall, 81% of participants defined the threshold for fever as <38.0°C, 0% correctly defined fever between 38.0°C and 38.3°C, and 19% defined fever as >38.3°C. Twenty percent of children brought to clinic for a chief complaint of fever were never truly febrile. Ninety-three percent of participants believed that high fever can cause brain damage. For a comfortable-appearing child with fever, 89% of caregivers reported that they would give antipyretics and 86% would schedule a clinic visit. Conclusion. Our finding that 0% of parents correctly defined fever is both surprising and unsettling, and it should inform future discussions of fever between parents and clinicians.
Acetaminophen (paracetamol, APAP) is widely used as an analgesic and antipyretic drug in children and neonates. A number of enzymes contribute to the metabolism of acetaminophen, and genetic factors might be important to explain variability in acetaminophen metabolism among individuals.
This study used the National Poison Data System database to retrospectively analyze the characteristics and medical outcomes of exposures to antipyretic medications involving children younger than 6 years in the United States. From 2000 through 2015, United States Poison Control Centers recorded an average of 74 387 antipyretic exposures annually among children younger than 6 years. Most exposures involved ibuprofen (55.1%) or acetaminophen (40.1%). From 2000 to 2009, the number of exposures increased by 73.0%, followed by a 25.2% decrease from 2009 to 2015. Children exposed to acetaminophen had 1.98 times higher odds of a serious medical outcome compared with those exposed to ibuprofen. Although generally safe at the correct dosage, antipyretic exposures continue to cause pediatric morbidity and, in rare cases, death. Prevention efforts should focus on reducing child access; educating caregivers about the potential dangers of antipyretics; and discouraging their use, except when needed to improve a child’s comfort.
Paracetamol is a common antipyretic often used to treat children with fever and pain. With the increasing administration of intravenous (IV) paracetamol, there will be the associated risk of medication dosing errors. We report a case of IV paracetamol overdose in a child with fever during hospital admission. A IV paracetamol dosing error occurred, with delayed recognition resulting in transient hepatotoxicity, with a peak alanine transaminase of 1946 IU/L and aspartate transaminase of 1633 IU/L.