Schizophrenia has historically been considered to be a deteriorating disease, a view reinforced by recent MRI findings of progressive brain tissue loss over the early years of illness. On the other hand, the notion that recovery from schizophrenia is possible is increasingly embraced by consumer and family groups. This review critically examines the evidence from longitudinal studies of (1) clinical outcomes, (2) MRI brain volumes, and (3) cognitive functioning. First, the evidence shows that although approximately 25% of people with schizophrenia have a poor long-term outcome, few of these show the incremental loss of function that is characteristic of neurodegenerative illnesses. Second, MRI studies demonstrate subtle developmental abnormalities at first onset of psychosis and then further decreases in brain tissue volumes; however, these latter decreases are explicable by the effects of antipsychotic medication, substance abuse, and other secondary factors. Third, while patients do show cognitive deficits compared with controls, cognitive functioning does not appear to deteriorate over time. The majority of people with schizophrenia have the potential to achieve long-term remission and functional recovery. The fact that some experience deterioration in functioning over time may reflect poor access, or adherence, to treatment, the effects of concurrent conditions, and social and financial impoverishment. Mental health professionals need to join with patients and their families in understanding that schizophrenia is not a malignant disease that inevitably deteriorates over time but rather one from which most people can achieve a substantial degree of recovery.
To investigate the association between antidepressant therapy and the later onset of mania/bipolar disorder.
Although antipsychotic drugs can reduce psychotic behavior within a few hours, full efficacy is not achieved for several weeks, implying that there may be rapid, short-term changes in neuronal function, which are consolidated into long-lasting changes. We showed that the antipsychotic drug haloperidol, a dopamine receptor type 2 (D2R) antagonist, stimulated the kinase Akt to activate the mRNA translation pathway mediated by the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). In primary striatal D2R-positive neurons, haloperidol-mediated activation of mTORC1 resulted in increased phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 (S6) and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein (4E-BP). Proteomic mass spectrometry revealed marked changes in the pattern of protein synthesis after acute exposure of cultured striatal neurons to haloperidol, including increased abundance of cytoskeletal proteins and proteins associated with translation machinery. These proteomic changes coincided with increased morphological complexity of neurons that was diminished by inhibition of downstream effectors of mTORC1, suggesting that mTORC1-dependent translation enhances neuronal complexity in response to haloperidol. In vivo, we observed rapid morphological changes with a concomitant increase in the abundance of cytoskeletal proteins in cortical neurons of haloperidol-injected mice. These results suggest a mechanism for both the acute and long-term actions of antipsychotics.
AIM. To compare the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) and vascular events, between patients treated and untreated with antipsychotic drugs. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. A cross-sectional study was done in Barcelona. We compared patients attended in Primary Health Care Centres, treated with or without antipsychotics between 2008 and 2010. Anthropometric measurements, clinical variables, and CVRF were assessed. Adult and elderly patients, typical and atypical antipsychotics, were studied separately. RESULTS. 14,087 patients had been prescribed antipsychotics (63.4% atypical), the most common being risperidone. We selected 13,724 patients with the same age and gender but not treated (total of 27,811 patients). Patients receiving antipsychotic had higher prevalence of obesity (16.9% vs. 11.9%), smoking (22.2% vs. 11.1%), diabetes mellitus (16% vs. 11.9%), and dyslipidemia (32.8% vs. 25.8%) (p < 0.001). The prevalence of stroke was significantly higher in the treated patients, both in adults (odds ratio = 2.33) and the elderly (odds ratio = 1.64). The prevalence of coronary heart disease was similar in both groups (odds ratio = 0.97). Among patients treated with antipsychotic, differences were not observed depending typical or atypical ones. CONCLUSIONS. Patients treated with antipsychotic drugs had a greater prevalence of several CVRF (diabetes mellitus, obesity, and smoking). The presence of stroke was higher in those treated with antipsychotics. No relevant differences were observed between patients receiving typical or atypical antipsychotics.
To produce a practice guideline that includes a set of detailed consensus principles regarding the prescription of antipsychotics (APs) amongst people with dementia living in care homes.
Non-adherence to antipsychotic medication is commonly found in schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, thus forming a major obstacle to long-term maintenance treatment and contributing to high relapse rates. With limited evidence on the success of interventions in enhancing medication adherence, this controlled trial was designed to test and evaluate the effectiveness of an adherence therapy (AT) for outpatients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, based on a motivational interviewing approach over a six-month follow-up period.
Antipsychotic medications are increasingly used during pregnancy. Nevertheless, fetal risks are still not fully studied. It is currently unclear whether the antipsychotic treatment might induce a higher risk of fetal death. We aimed to determine if use of antipsychotic medication during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of spontaneous abortion or stillbirth.
Genetic factors are important in the pathogenesis of Tourette syndrome (TS). Notably, Dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) gene has been suggested as a possible candidate gene for this disorder. Several studies have demonstrated that DRD2/ANKK1 TaqIA polymorphism is associated with an increased risk of developing TS. However, past results remain conflicting. We addressed this controversy by performing a meta-analysis of the relationship between DRD2/ANKK1 TaqIA polymorphism and TS.
Up to 30% of people with schizophrenia do not respond to two (or more) trials of dopaminergic antipsychotics. They are said to have treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS). Clozapine is still the only effective treatment for TRS, although it is underused in clinical practice. Initial use is delayed, it can be hard for patients to tolerate, and clinicians can be uncertain as to when to use it. What if, at the start of treatment, we could identify those patients likely to respond to clozapine - and those likely to suffer adverse effects? It is likely that clinicians would feel less inhibited about using it, allowing clozapine to be used earlier and more appropriately. Genetic testing holds out the tantalizing possibility of being able to do just this, and hence the vital importance of pharmacogenomic studies. These can potentially identify genetic markers for both tolerance of and vulnerability to clozapine. We aim to summarize progress so far, possible clinical applications, limitations to the evidence, and problems in applying these findings to the management of TRS. Pharmacogenomic studies of clozapine response and tolerability have produced conflicting results. These are due, at least in part, to significant differences in the patient groups studied. The use of clinical pharmacogenomic testing - to personalize clozapine treatment and identify patients at high risk of treatment failure or of adverse events - has moved closer over the last 20 years. However, to develop such testing that could be used clinically will require larger, multicenter, prospective studies.
Although people with intellectual disability (ID) and people with dementia have high drug prescription rates, there is a lack of studies investigating drug use among those with concurrent diagnoses of ID and dementia.